Glioma is the most common type of primary brain tumors in adults. Previous evidence indicates that the X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 gene (XRCC1) is an important candidate gene which influencing the pathogenesis of glioma. This study aims to assess the potential associations between glioma risks and genetic polymorphisms of XRCC1 gene. A total of 1,286 Chinese Han ethnic subjects consisting of 638 glioma patients and 648 controls were recruited in this case-control study. The genotyping of XRCC1 genetic polymorphisms (c.482C>T, c.1161G>A, and c.1804C>A) were conducted using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), created restriction site-PCR (CRS-PCR) and DNA sequencing methods. Our data indicated that the allelic and genotypic frequencies of these genetic polymorphisms in glioma patients were significantly different from those of controls. We detected that the alleles/genotypes were statistically associated with the increased risks of glioma (for c.482C>T, TT versus (vs.) CC: OR = 2.24, 95% CI = 1.48–3.39, P < 0.001; T vs. C: OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.09–1.53, P = 0.003; for c.1161G>A, AA vs. GG: OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.11–2.35, P = 0.012; A vs. G: OR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.01–1.41, P = 0.040; for c.1804C>A, AA vs. CC: OR = 2.12, 95% CI = 1.45–3.11, P < 0.001; A vs. C: OR = 1.32, 95% CI = 1.12–1.56, P = 0.001). Our findings suggest that these genetic polymorphisms of XRCC1 gene may influence glioma risks in Chinese Han ethnic subjects, and might be potential molecular markers for evaluating glioma risks. J. Cell. Biochem. 115: 1122–1127, 2014. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.