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Fig. S1. Effect of ginsenosides on UV-induced TIMP1 expression in HDFs. Ginsenosides were treated with the indicated concentrations in HDFs for 1 h before being exposed to 0.2 kJ/m2 of UV, and the cell lysates were harvested at 6 h after UV irradiation. The levels of expression were determined by Western blot analysis using the indicated antibodies.

Fig. S2. Quantitative analysis of the effect of GPD on UV-induced phosphorylation of JNK, Akt, mTOR, p70 S6K, AMPK, and LKB. The relative band intensity was determined using the Image J program. Means with letters (a-c) within a graph are significantly different from each other at P < 0.05 as determined by Duncan's multiple range test.

Fig. S3. Effect of GPD on LKB1, AMPK, and p38 phosphorylation in HDFs. GPD was treated with the indicated concentrations in HDFs for 1 h, and the cell lysates were obtained at 30 min after GPD treatment. The levels of expression were determined by Western blot analysis using the indicated antibodies. The data are the representative of three independent experiments that produced similar results.

Fig. S4. Quantitative analysis of the effect of AMPK activation on UV-induced MMP1 expression (A) and the effect of GPD on UV-induced MMP1 expression in the presence of CaMK inhibitor (B). The relative band intensity was determined using the Image J program.

Fig. S5. Validation of the effect of STO-609 on UV-induced phosphorylation of CAMK (T286). STO-609 was treated with the indicated concentrations in HDFs for 1 h before being exposed to 0.2 kJ/m 2 of UV, and the cell lysates were prepared at 30 min after UV irradiation. Protein expression was analyzed by Western blotting using indicated antibody.

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