• DNA alignment;
  • nucleotide adjacency matrix;
  • VESNA;
  • graphical bioinformatics


We describe a very efficient search for nucleotide alignments, which is analogous to the novel very efficient search for protein alignment. Just as it has been the case with the alignment of proteins, based on 20 × 20 adjacency matrices for amino acids, obtained from a superposition of labeled amino acids adjacency matrices for the proteins considered, one can construct labeled matrices of size 4 × 4, listing adjacencies of nucleotides in DNA sequence. The matrix elements correspond to 16 pairs of adjacent nucleotides. To obtain DNA alignments, one combines information in the corresponding matrices for a pair of DNA nucleotides. Matrices are obtained by insertion of the sequential labels for pairs of nucleotides in the corresponding cells of the 4 × 4 tables. When two such matrices are superimposed, one can identify all segments in two DNA sequences, which are shifted relative to one another by the same amount in either direction, without using trial-and-error displacements of the two sequences one relative to the other to find local nucleotide alignments. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.