Four implicit membrane models [IMM1, generalized Born (GB)-surface area-implicit membrane (GBSAIM), GB with a simple switching (GBSW), and heterogeneous dielectric GB (HDGB)] were tested for their ability to discriminate the native conformation of five membrane proteins from 450 decoys generated by the Rosetta-Membrane program. The energy ranking of the native state and Z-scores were used to assess the performance of the models. The effect of membrane thickness was examined and was found to be substantial. Quite satisfactory discrimination was achieved with the all-atom IMM1 and GBSW models at 25.4 Å thickness and with the HDGB model at 28.5 Å thickness. The energy components by themselves were not discriminative. Both van der Waals and electrostatic interactions contributed to native state discrimination, to a different extent in each model. Computational efficiency of the models decreased in the order: extended-atom IMM1 > all-atom IMM1 > GBSAIM > GBSW > HDGB. These results encourage the further development and use of implicit membrane models for membrane protein structure prediction. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.