• mixed quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics;
  • mixed quantum mechanics/quantum mechanics;
  • frozen localized orbital;
  • Huzinaga equation


Mixed quantum mechanics/quantum mechanics (QM/QM) and quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) methods make computations feasible for extended chemical systems by separating them into subsystems that are treated at different level of sophistication. In many applications, the subsystems are covalently bound and the use of frozen localized orbitals at the boundary is a possible way to separate the subsystems and to ensure a sensible description of the electronic structure near to the boundary. A complication in these methods is that orthogonality between optimized and frozen orbitals has to be warranted and this is usually achieved by an explicit orthogonalization of the basis set to the frozen orbitals. An alternative to this approach is proposed by calculating the wave-function from the Huzinaga equation that guaranties orthogonality to the frozen orbitals without basis set orthogonalization. The theoretical background and the practical aspects of the application of the Huzinaga equation in mixed methods are discussed. Forces have been derived to perform geometry optimization with wave-functions from the Huzinaga equation. Various properties have been calculated by applying the Huzinaga equation for the central QM subsystem, representing the environment by point charges and using frozen strictly localized orbitals to connect the subsystems. It is shown that a two to three bond separation of the chemical or physical event from the frozen bonds allows a very good reproduction (typically around 1 kcal/mol) of standard Hartree–Fock–Roothaan results. The proposed scheme provides an appropriate framework for mixed QM/QM and QM/MM methods. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.