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Keywords:

  • random acceleration molecular dynamics;
  • histone deacetylase;
  • ligand unbinding;
  • channels;
  • molecular dynamics

Exploring the molecular channels of class I histone deacetylases (HDACs) with buried active sites are important to understand their structures and functionalities. In this work, we perform hybrid classical molecular dynamics and random acceleration molecular dynamics simulations to explore the B3N [i.e., (4-(dimethylamino)N-[7(hydroxyamino)-7-oxoheptyle] benzamide)] exit channels in the x-ray crystal structures of HDAC3 and HDAC8 enzymes. Our simulations identify B3N release through four different channels in HDAC3 (denoted as A1, A2, B1, and B2) and HDAC8 (referred as A1, B1, B2, and B3) enzymes, among which egression through channel A1 is more predominant in both the enzymes. This mechanism is similar to ligand release in HDAC1 and HDAC2 described in our previous study and can be the fingerprint ligand release mechanisms in class I HDACs. Ligand release events through B channels, on the other hand, are different among HDAC3 and HDAC8, highlighting the significances of substituted residues in controlling the access to these channels This study reveals a novel aromatic gating mechanism elicited by TYR154-TRP141-TYR111 that controls the B3N access to all the B channels in HDAC8. The TRP141 in HDAC8 is substituted by LEU133 in HDAC3, which do not hinder the access to B channels in HDAC3. However, two hydrogen bonded barricades formed as ARG28-GLY297-GLY295-GLY131 and TRP129-ARG28-ALA130-LEU29-TRP129 obstruct the B3N from exploring the B channels in HDAC3. The structural and dynamical characterizations of molecular channels and ligand unbinding mechanisms reported in this study provide novel structural insights and atomic level perspectives on HDAC3 and HDAC8 enzymes, thereby potentially aiding in the design of more specific HDAC inhibitors.Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.