Valence state parameters of all transition metal atoms in metalloproteins—development of ABEEMσπ fluctuating charge force field

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Abstract

To promote accuracy of the atom-bond electronegativity equalization method (ABEEMσπ) fluctuating charge polarizable force fields, and extend it to include all transition metal atoms, a new parameter, the reference charge is set up in the expression of the total energy potential function. We select over 700 model molecules most of which model metalloprotein molecules that come from Protein Data Bank. We set reference charges for different apparent valence states of transition metals and calibrate the parameters of reference charges, valence state electronegativities, and valence state hardnesses for ABEEMσπ through linear regression and least square method. These parameters can be used to calculate charge distributions of metalloproteins containing transition metal atoms (Sc-Zn, Y-Cd, and Lu-Hg). Compared the results of ABEEMσπ charge distributions with those obtained by ab initio method, the quite good linear correlations of the two kinds of charge distributions are shown. The reason why the STO-3G basis set in Mulliken population analysis for the parameter calibration is specially explained in detail. Furthermore, ABEEMσπ method can also quickly and quite accurately calculate dipole moments of molecules. Molecular dynamics optimizations of five metalloproteins as the examples show that their structures obtained by ABEEMσπ fluctuating charge polarizable force field are very close to the structures optimized by the ab initio MP2/6–311G method. This means that the ABEEMσπ/MM can now be applied to molecular dynamics simulations of systems that contain metalloproteins with good accuracy. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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