A 3-phase Barker array is a matrix of third roots of unity for which all out-of-phase aperiodic autocorrelations have magnitude 0 or 1. The only known truly two-dimensional 3-phase Barker arrays have size 2 × 2 or 3 × 3. We use a mixture of combinatorial arguments and algebraic number theory to establish severe restrictions on the size of a 3-phase Barker array when at least one of its dimensions is divisible by 3. In particular, there exists a double-exponentially growing arithmetic function T such that no 3-phase Barker array of size with exists for all . For example, , , and . When both dimensions are divisible by 3, the existence problem is settled completely: if a 3-phase Barker array of size exists, then .