Genetic, environmental, immunological, and hormonal factors contribute to the etiology of Tourette syndrome (TS). From the genetic standpoint, TS is a heterogeneous disorder. In our previous study, we found that a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of x-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1), a DNA repair gene, was associated with TS. Previous studies also showed that tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 1 (TDP1) interacts with XRCC1 to repair damaged DNA. However, the relationship between TS and SNPs of TDP1 gene is unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that if the TDP1 SNP, rs28365054 (c.400G>A, Ala134Thr), was associated with TS or not.