The aim of this article is to shed more light on the relationship between quality of life and aspects of the psychosocial experience for women with breast cancer. The literature is briefly reviewed, including highlights of the psychosocial consequences of cancer, an exploration of the relationship of psychosocial variables to cancer, and a brief review of psychosocial interventions for cancer. Further, preliminary findings of an on-going NCI study are introduced. Finally, clinical implications are discussed. The purpose of this article is to provide a context and foundation on which future researchers and clinicians can build. Ultimately, we suggest that the biomedical model of disease, though crucial, does not take into account all of the complex factors involved in cancer. The current literature lends support to the argument that a broader, more integrative framework, which includes psychosocial factors, is needed. © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Clin Psychol 57: 501–519, 2001