Neurofeedback in adolescents and adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
Article first published online: 18 FEB 2005
Copyright © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Journal of Clinical Psychology
Special Issue: ADHD in Adolescents and Adults
Volume 61, Issue 5, pages 621–625, May 2005
How to Cite
Butnik, S. M. (2005), Neurofeedback in adolescents and adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. J. Clin. Psychol., 61: 621–625. doi: 10.1002/jclp.20124
- Issue published online: 1 APR 2005
- Article first published online: 18 FEB 2005
Neurofeedback is being utilized more commonly today in treating individuals who have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Neurofeedback, which is based on theories that recognize the organic basis of ADHD, utilizes biofeedback to guide individuals to regulate their brain activity. Neurofeedback relies on research that has demonstrated that most individuals who have ADHD, as compared to matched peers, have excess slow wave activity and reduced fast wave activity. It provides immediate feedback to the individual about his or her brain wave activity in the form of a video game, whose action is influenced by the individual's meeting predetermined thresholds of brain activity. Over several sessions of using the video and auditory feedback, individuals reduce their slow wave activity and/or increase their fast wave activity. Individuals who complete a course of training sessions often show reduced primary ADHD symptoms. Research has shown that neurofeedback outcomes compare favorably to those of stimulant medication. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Psychol/In Session 61: 621–625, 2005.