The history and meaning of evidence-based practice (EBP) in the health disciplines was described to the Council of University Directors of Clinical Psychology (CUDCP) training programs. Evidence-based practice designates a process of clinical decision-making that integrates research evidence, clinical expertise, and patient preferences and characteristics. Evidence-based practice is a transdisciplinary, idiographic approach that promotes lifelong learning. Empirically supported treatments (ESTs) are an important component of EBP, but EBP cannot be reduced to ESTs. Psychologists need additional skills to act as creators, synthesizers, and consumers of research evidence, who act within their scope of clinical expertise and engage patients in shared decision-making. Training needs are identified in the areas of clinical trial methodology and reporting, systematic reviews, search strategies, measuring patient preferences, and acquisition of clinical skills to perform ESTs. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Psychol 63: 611–631, 2007.