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Selected References and Recommended Readings Studies preceded by an asterisk were included in the meta-analysis.

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  • *Burton, C.M., & King, L.A. (2004). The health benefits of writing about intensely positive experiences. Journal of Research in Personality, 38, 150163.
  • Carstensen, L.L., Isaacowitz, D.M., & Charles, S.T. (1999). Taking time seriously: A theory of socioemotional selectivity. American Psychologist, 54, 165181.
  • *Cheavens, J.S., Feldman, D.B., Gum, A., Michael, S.T., & Snyder, C.R. (2006). Hope therapy in a community sample: A pilot investigation. Social Indicators Research, 77, 6178.
  • *Cook, E.A. (1998). Effects of reminiscence on life satisfaction of elderly female nursing home residents. Health Care for Women International, 19, 109118.
  • *Davis, M.C. (2004). Life review therapy as an intervention to manage depression and life satisfaction in individuals with right hemisphere cerebral vascular accidents. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 25, 503515.
  • *Della Porta, M.D., Sin, N.L., & Lyubomirsky, S. (2008). Searching for the placebo effect in happiness-enhancing interventions: An experimental longitudinal study with depressed and nondepressed participants. Poster to be presented at the 2009 Annual Meeting of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Tampa, FL.
  • Diener, E. (1984). Subjective well-being. Psychological Bulletin, 95, 542575.
  • Diener, E., & Diener, C. (1996). Most people are happy. Psychological Science, 7, 181185.
    Direct Link:
  • *Emmons, R.A., & McCullough, M.E. (2003). Counting blessings versus burdens: An experimental investigation of gratitude and subjective well-being in daily life. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 377389.
  • *Fava, G.A., Rafanelli, C., Cazzaro, M., Conti, S., & Grandi, S. (1998). Well-being therapy: A novel psychotherapeutic model for residual symptoms of affective disorders. Psychological Medicine, 28, 475480.
  • Fava, G.A., & Ruini, C. (2003). Development and characteristics of a well-being enhancing psychotherapeutic strategy: Well-being therapy. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 34, 4563.
  • *Fava, G.A., Ruini, C., Rafanelli, C., Finos, L., Salmaso, L., Mangelli, L., et al. (2005). Well-being therapy of generalized anxiety disorder. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 74, 2630.
  • Forbes, E.E., & Dahl, R.E. (2005). Neural systems of positive affect: Relevance to understanding child and adolescent depression? Development and Psychopathology, 17, 827850.
  • *Fordyce, M.W. (1977). Development of a program to increase personal happiness. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 24, 511521.
  • *Fordyce, M.W. (1983). A program to increase happiness: Further studies. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 30, 483498.
  • Fredrickson, B.L. (2008). Promoting positive affect. In M.Eid & R.J.Larsen (Eds.), The science of subjective well-being (pp. 449468). New York: Guilford Press.
  • Fredrickson, B.L., & Joiner, T. (2002). Positive emotions trigger upward spirals toward emotional well-being. Psychological Science, 13, 172175.
    Direct Link:
  • Fredrickson, B.L., & Levenson, R.W. (1998). Positive emotions speed recovery from the cardiovascular sequelae of negative emotions. Cognition and Emotion, 12, 191220.
  • *Freedman, S.R., & Enright, R.D. (1996). Forgiveness as an intervention goal with incest survivors. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64, 983992.
  • *Froh, J.J., Sefick, W.J., & Emmons, R.A. (2008). Counting blessings in early adolescents: An experimental study of gratitude and subjective well-being. Journal of School Psychology, 46, 213233.
  • *Goldstein, E.D. (2007). Sacred moments: Implications on well-being and stress. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 63, 10011019.
  • *Green, L.S., Oades, L.G., & Grant, A.M. (2006). Cognitive-behavioral, solution-focused life coaching: Enhancing goal striving, well-being, and hope. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 1, 142149.
  • *Grossman, P., Tiefenthaler-Gilmer, U., Raysz, A., & Kesper, U. (2007). Mindfulness training as an intervention for fibromyalgia: Evidence of postintervention and 3-year follow-up benefits in well-being. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 76, 226233.
  • Keyes, C.L.M. (2002). The mental health continuum: From languishing to flourishing in life. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 43, 207222.
  • *King, L.A. (2001). The health benefits of writing about life goals. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27, 798807.
  • *King, L.A., & Miner, K.N. (2000). Writing about the perceiving benefits of traumatic events: Implications for physical health. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 26, 220230.
  • *Kremers, I.P., Steverink, N., Albersnagel, F.A., & Slaets, J.P.J. (2006). Improvement self-management ability and well-being in older women after a short group intervention. Aging & Mental Health, 10, 476484.
  • *Lichter, S., Haye, K., & Kammann, R. (1980). Increasing happiness through cognitive retraining. New Zealand Psychologist, 9, 5764.
  • Light, R.J., & Pillemer, D.B. (1984). Summing up: The science of reviewing research. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  • *Lin, W.F., Mack, D., Enright, R.D., Krahn, D., & Baskin, T.W. (2004). Effects of forgiveness therapy on anger, mood, and vulnerability to substance use among inpatient substance-dependent clients. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 72, 11141121.
  • Linley, P.A., Maltby, J., Wood, A.M., Joseph, S., Harrington, S., Peterson, C. et al. (2007). Character strengths in the United Kingdom: The VIA Inventory of Strengths. Personality and Individual Differences, 43, 341351.
  • *Low, C.A., Stanton, A.L., & Danoff-Burg, S. (2006). Expressive disclosure and benefit finding among breast cancer patients: Mechanisms for positive health effects. Health Psychology, 25, 181189.
  • *Lyubomirsky, S., Dickerhoof, R., Boehm, J.K., & Sheldon, K.M. (2008). Becoming happier takes both a will and a proper way: Two experimental longitudinal interventions to boost well-being. Manuscript under review.
  • Lyubomirsky, S., King, L.A., & Diener, E. (2005). The benefits of frequent positive affect: Does happiness lead to success? Psychological Bulletin, 131, 803855.
  • *Lyubomirsky, S., Tkach, C., & Sheldon, K.M. (2004). [Pursuing sustained happiness through random acts of kindness and counting one's blessings: Tests of two six-week interventions]. Unpublished raw data. Results presented in: Lyubomirsky, S., Sheldon, K. M., & Schkade, D. (2005). Pursuing happiness: The architecture of sustainable change. Review of General Psychology, 9, 111131.
  • *MacLeod, A.K., Coates, E., & Hetherton, J. (2008). Increasing well-being through teaching goal-setting and planning skills: Results of a brief intervention. Journal of Happiness Studies, 9, 185196.
  • Mosteller, F., & Bush, R. (1954). Selected quantitative techniques. In G.Lindzey (Ed.), Handbook of Social Psychology (Vol. 1, pp. 289334). Cambridge, MA: Addison-Wesley.
  • *Otake, K., Shimai, S., Tanaka-Matsumi, J., Otsui, K., & Fredrickson, B.L. (2006). Happy people become happier through kindness: A counting kindness intervention. Journal of Happiness Studies, 7, 361375.
  • Pressman, S.D., & Cohen, S. (2005). Does positive affect influence health? Psychological Bulletin, 131, 925971.
  • *Rashid, T., Anjum, A., & Lennox, C. (2006). Positive psychotherapy for middle school children. Unpublished manuscript, Toronto District School Board. Results presented in: Rashid, T., & Anjum, A. (2008). Positive psychotherapy for young adults and children. In J.R.Z. Abela & B.L. Hankin (Eds), Handbook of depression in children and adolescents (pp. 250287). New York: Guilford Press.
  • *Reed, G.L., & Enright, R.D. (2006). The effects of forgiveness therapy on depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress for women after spousal emotional abuse. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74, 920929.
  • Rosenthal, R. (1979). The “file drawer problem” and tolerance for null results. Psychological Bulletin, 86, 638641.
  • Rosenthal, R. (1991a). Meta-analysis: A review. Psychosomatic Medicine, 53, 247271.
  • Rosenthal, R. (1991b). Meta-analytic procedures for social research (Rev. ed.). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
  • Rosenthal, R. (1995). Writing meta-analytic reviews. Psychological Bulletin, 118, 183192.
  • Rosenthal, R., & DiMatteo, M.R. (2001). Meta-analysis: Recent developments in quantitative methods for literature reviews. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 5982.
  • Rosenthal, R., & Rosnow, R.L. (2008). Essentials of behavioral research: Methods and data analysis (3rd ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
  • *Ruini, C., Belaise, C., Brombin, C., Caffo, E., & Fava, G.A. (2006). Well-being therapy in school settings: A pilot study. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 75, 331336.
  • Ryan, R.M., & Deci, E.L. (2001). On happiness and human potentials: A review of research on hedonic and eudaimonic well-being. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 141166.
  • Ryff, C.D. (1989). Happiness is everything, or is it? Explorations on the meaning of psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 10691081.
  • *Seligman, M.E.P. (2004, September). Positive interventions: More evidence of effectiveness. Authentic Happiness Newsletter. Retrieved July 17, 2008, from http://www.authentichappiness.sas.upenn.edu/newsletter.aspx?id=45. Results presented in: Rashid, T., & Anjum, A. (2008). Positive psychotherapy for young adults and children. In J.R.Z. Abela & B.L. Hankin (Eds), Handbook of depression in children and adolescents (pp. 250287). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
  • *Seligman, M.E.P., Rashid, T., & Parks, A.C. (2006). Positive psychotherapy. American Psychologist, 61, 774788.
  • *Seligman, M.E.P., Steen, T.A., Park, N., & Peterson, C. (2005). Positive psychology progress: Empirical validation of interventions. American Psychologist, 60, 410421.
  • *Sheldon, K.M., Kasser, T., Smith, K., & Share, T. (2002). Personal goals and psychological growth: Testing an intervention to enhance goal attainment and personality integration. Journal of Personality, 70, 531.
  • *Sheldon, K.M., & Lyubomirsky, S. (2006). How to increase and sustain positive emotion: The effects of expressing gratitude and visualizing best possible selves. Journal of Positive Psychology, 1, 7382.
  • *Smith, W.P., Compton, W.C., West, W.B. (1995). Meditation as an adjunct to a happiness enhancement program. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 51, 269273.
  • *Spence, G.B., & Grant, A.M. (2007). Professional and peer life coaching and the enhancement of goal striving and well-being: An exploratory study. Journal of Positive Psychology, 2, 185194.
  • *Surawy, C., Roberts, J., & Silver, A. (2005). The effect of mindfulness training on mood and measures of fatigue, activity, and quality of life in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome on a hospital waiting list: A series of exploratory studies. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 33, 103109.
  • *Tkach, C.T. (2006). Unlocking the treasury of human kindness: Enduring improvements in mood, happiness, and self-evaluations. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 67, 603.
  • Tugade, M.M., & Fredrickson, B.L. (2004). Resilient individuals use positive emotions to bounce back from negative emotional experiences. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 86, 320333.
  • Watkins, P.C., Woodward, K., Stone, T., & Kolts, R.L. (2003). Gratitude and happiness: Development of a measure of gratitude and relationships with subjective well-being. Social Behavior and Personality, 31, 431452.
  • *Wing, J.F., Schutte, N.S., & Bryne, B. (2006). The effects of positive writing on emotional intelligence and life satisfaction. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 62, 12911302.
  • *Zautra, A.J., Davis, M.C., Reich, J.W., Nicassario, P., Tennen, H., Finan, P. et al. (2008). Comparison of cognitive behavioral and mindfulness meditation interventions on adaptation to rheumatoid arthritis for patients with and without history of recurrent depression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 76, 408421.