This study analyzed the psychometric properties of the Interpersonal Needs Questionnaire-12 (INQ-12; Van Orden, Witte, Gordon, Bender, & Joiner, 2008a), designed to test Joiner's interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide. Study participants included 785 U.S. undergraduates (58.6% female; 77.2% White; ages 18–25). Confirmatory bifactor analyses discerned a general factor for overall distress, while also supporting separate subfactors for perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness. The scale's factor structure did not vary by gender, and internal consistency reliability was strong among the male and female samples. Correlational analyses supported the scale's content validity. Overall, the analyses preliminarily support continued use of the INQ-12. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Psychol 67:1–15, 2011.