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Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the Multidimensional Assessment of Social Anxiety (MASA)


  • This research was supported in part by a grant from the Mark Diamond Research Fund of the State University of New York at Buffalo.

  • The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the position or policy of the Department of Veterans Affairs or the United States government.

Please address correspondence to: Daniel Gros, Mental Health Service 116, Ralph H. Johnson VAMC, 109 Bee Street, Charleston, SC 29401. E-mail address:



Hybrid models of psychopathology propose to combine the current categorical diagnostic system with shared symptom dimensions common across various disorders. Recently, the first empirically derived hybrid model of social anxiety was developed, including both a specific factor for the diagnostic category of social anxiety and 5 nonspecific factors for related symptoms. The present investigation developed a self-report measure—the Multidimensional Assessment of Social Anxiety (MASA)—based on this model to further the research on hybrid models.


This investigation included three studies across large undergraduate (N = 411; 52.3% male; mean [M] age = 19.6) and clinical (N = 684; 61.4% female; M age = 35.8) samples, involving the administration of the MASA item pool and existing measures of related constructs.


Through a series of psychometric evaluations, the initial 466-item pool was reduced to a final 38-item measure that represented 6 distinct scales with adequate model fit, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and convergent and discriminant validity.


Together, these studies likely will lead to additional research and advances in the development of the hybrid models of the mood and anxiety disorders through the dissemination and administration of the MASA.