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Measurement Equivalence of the Brief Comprehensive Effects of Alcohol Scale in a Multiethnic Sample of College Students


Please address correspondence to: Lindsay S. Ham, 118B Memorial Hall, Fayetteville, Arkansas 72701. E-mail:



This study examined the measurement equivalence of the Brief Comprehensive Effects of Alcohol scale (B-CEOA; Ham et al., 2005)—a measure that assesses alcohol outcome expectancies (AOE) and expectancy evaluations—across ethnic groups and genders among multiethnic college student samples.


Undergraduates provided self-report data in two multisite studies (Study 1: N = 1,536, 75.5% women, Mage = 19.6 years old, 56.4% European American, 9.8% African American, 7.6% Asian American, and 26.2% Hispanic/Latino American; Study 2: N = 7,767, 72.6% women, Mage = 19.8 years old, 63.3% European American, 7.9% African American, 14.3% Asian American, and 14.5% Hispanic/Latino American).


Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported a positive and negative 4-factor model. Positive and negative AOE and expectancy evaluations were positively associated with hazardous alcohol use. Measurement equivalence of the B-CEOA across ethnicities and genders was largely supported.


This study provides support for the utility of the B-CEOA in college students of different ethnicities and genders in assessment and prevention.