Provision of residential services to people with mental illness has assumed increasing importance since deinstitutionalization and as community- based services have increased. This large-scale multisite study of housing programs specifically for persons with mental illness examines one of the factors that lead to successful residential tenure for persons with serious mental illness. To date, the Lehman Quality of Life Scale has been used primarily to assess satisfaction with housing in studies of residential services. This article reports on a new measure of housing satisfaction. This new 25-item instrument was developed, field tested in a variety of housing settings across the country, and analyzed for reliability and validity by a group of housing researchers and clinicians. The implications of using this instrument for future evaluation and research on housing for persons with mental illness are examined. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Comm Psychol 31: 581–590, 2003.