Mechanisms regulating the expression, self-maintenance, and signaling-function of the bradykinin B2 and B1 receptors



Bradykinin (BK) is a potent short-lived effector belonging to a class of peptides known as kinins. It participates in inflammatory and vascular regulation and processes including angioedema, tissue permeability, vascular dilation, and smooth muscle contraction. BK exerts its biological effects through the activation of the bradykinin B2 receptor (BKB2R) which is G-protein-coupled and is generally constitutively expressed. Upon binding, the receptor is activated and transduces signal cascades which have become paradigms for the actions of the Gαi and Gαq G-protein subunits. Following activation the receptor is then desensitized, endocytosed, and resensitized. The bradykinin B1 (BKB1R) is a closely related receptor. It is activated by desArg10-kallidin or desArg9-BK, metabolites of kallidin and BK, respectively. This receptor is induced following tissue injury or after treatment with bacterial endotoxins such as lipopolysacharide or cytokines such as interleukin-1 or tumor necrosis factor-α. In this review we will summarize the BKB2R and BKB1R mediated signal transduction pathways. We will then emphasize the relevance of key residues and domains of the intracellular regions of the BKB2R as they relate to modulating its function (signal transduction) and self-maintenance (desensitization, endocytosis, and resensitization). We will examine the features of the BKB1R gene promoter and its mRNA as these operate in the expression and self-maintenance of this inducible receptor. This communication will not cover areas discussed in earlier reviews pertaining to the actions of peptide analogs. For these we refer you to earlier reviews (Regoli and Barabé, 1980, Pharmacol Rev 32:1–46; Regoli et al., 1990, J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 15(Suppl 6):S30–S38; Regoli et al., 1993, Can J Physiol Pharmacol 71:556–557; Marceau, 1995, Immunopharmacology 30:1–26; Regoli et al., 1998, Eur J Pharmacol 348:1–10). J. Cell. Physiol. 193: 275–286, 2002. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.