Transforming growth factor beta-1 (1GF-β) stimulated porcine satellite cell proliferation in basal serum-free medium by 25%, but inhibited growth in serumcontaining medium by 58%. The effect of TGF-β on cell proliferation in serumfree medium was examined in combination with the following human recombinant growth factors: platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF), insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), and epidermal growth factor (EGF). TGF-β inhibited PDGF-stimulated proliferation, enhanced FGF-stimulated proliferation, and had no effect on proliferation stimulated by IGF-I. The response of satellite cells to EGF and TGF-β in serum-free medium was not different than TGF-β alone. TGF-β depressed proliferation stimulated by the following combinations of two growth factors: PDGF and IGF-I, PDGF and EGF, PDGF and FGF, and IGF-I and EGF. In combination with IGF-I and FGF, TGF-β did not affect proliferation. TGF-β inhibited proliferation stimulated by the combination of PDGF, EGF, and IGF-I, but had no effect on proliferation stimulated by combinations of three growth factors that included FGF. FGF stimulated proliferation in Minimum Essential Medium containing 10% porcine serum (MEM-10% PS) by 13% above control. When the combination of TGF-β and FGF was added to MEM-10% PS, a 78% increase in proliferation was observed. Polyclonal antihuman PDGF-AB (this form neutralizes PDGF-AA, AB, and BB) reduced proliferation in MEM-10% PS by 44%. The combination of TGF-β and anti-PDGF-AB reduced proliferation by 59%, indicating the effects were not additive. These data indicate that: (1) FGF and TGF-β interact to increase proliferation of clonally derived porcine satellite cells, and (2) the inhibitory effect of TGF-β on proliferation of clonally derived porcine satelite cells can be primarily attributed to a reduction in the mitogenic effects of PDGF. © 1993 Wiley-Liss, Inc.