Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is a potent mitogenic and chemotactic cytokine, and PDGF-C is a novel growth factor belonging to the PDGF family. In this study, to determine whether this growth factor can contribute to fibrosis and tissue remodeling, we examined the effect of PDGF-CC on the expression of fibrogenic/fibrolytic genes such as type I collagen, fibronectin (FN), matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and their inhibitors (TIMPs) in normal human dermal fibroblasts in vitro. PDGF elevated the levels of MMP-1 or TIMP-1 protein as well as mRNA, whereas this cytokine had no influence on the expression of type I collagen, FN, or TIMP-2. PDGF-CC also increased the levels of MMP-1 catalytic activity in the cultured media and mRNA expression, which was paralleled that on the levels of promoter activation. Additionally, PDGF-CC induced the mitogenic and migratory activity of human dermal fibroblasts in a dose-dependent manner. On the other hand, we also determined the specificity of the inhibitory effect of monoclonal antibodies against PDGF-CC generated by immunizing balb/c mice with recombinant human PDGF-CC. This antibody could inhibit the regulatory effects of MMP-1 or TIMP-1 synthesis as well as the mitogenic effects on human dermal fibroblasts induced by PDGF-CC, whereas this antibody did not affect those induced by other PDGF forms such as PDGF-AA, -AB, or -BB. These results suggest that this cytokine plays a role in the tissue remodeling. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.