Changes in intracellular sodium, chlorine, and potassium concentrations in staurosporine-induced apoptosis



Ion gradients across the plasma membrane, fundamentally K+, play a pivotal role in the execution phase of apoptosis. However, little is known about other monovalent anions (Cl) or cations (Na+) in apoptosis. In addition, the relationship between changes in total ion composition and morphological and biochemical events are poorly understood. We investigated simultaneous changes in sodium (Na), chlorine (Cl), and potassium (K) concentrations in stauroporine-induced apoptosis by quantitative electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPXMA) in single cells. Apoptotic cells identified unequivocally from the presence of chromatin condensation in backscattered electron images were characterized by an increase in intracellular Na, a decrease in intracellular Cl and K concentrations, and a decrease in K/Na ratio. The ouabain-sensitive Rb-uptake assay demonstrated a net decrease in Na+/K+-ATPase activity, suggesting that increases in Na and decreases in K and the K/Na ratio in apoptotic cells were related with inhibition of the Na+/K+-ATPase pump. These changes in diffusible elements were associated with externalization of phosphatidyl serine and oligonucleosomal fragmentation of DNA. This alteration in ion homeostasis and morphological hallmarks of apoptosis occur in cells that have lost their inner mitochondrial transmembrane potential and before the plasma membrane becomes permeable. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.