Molecular mechanisms of glutamine action

Authors

  • R. Curi,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil
    • Departamento de Fisiologia e Biofísica, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, Avenue Prof. Lineu Prestes, 1524, 05508-900, Butantan, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.
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  • C.J. Lagranha,

    1. Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil
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  • S.Q. Doi,

    1. Department of Medicine, Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland
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  • D.F. Sellitti,

    1. Department of Medicine, Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland
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  • J. Procopio,

    1. Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil
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  • T.C. Pithon-Curi,

    1. Camilo Castelo Branco University, São Paulo; Faculty of Health Sciences, Methodist University of Piracicaba, Piracicaba, SP, Brazil
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  • M. Corless,

    1. Department of Biochemistry, Conway Institute of Biomolecular and Biomedical Research, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin, Ireland
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  • P. Newsholme

    1. Department of Biochemistry, Conway Institute of Biomolecular and Biomedical Research, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin, Ireland
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Abstract

Glutamine is the most abundant free amino acid in the body and is known to play a regulatory role in several cell specific processes including metabolism (e.g., oxidative fuel, gluconeogenic precursor, and lipogenic precursor), cell integrity (apoptosis, cell proliferation), protein synthesis, and degradation, contractile protein mass, redox potential, respiratory burst, insulin resistance, insulin secretion, and extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis. Glutamine has been shown to regulate the expression of many genes related to metabolism, signal transduction, cell defense and repair, and to activate intracellular signaling pathways. Thus, the function of glutamine goes beyond that of a simple metabolic fuel or protein precursor as previously assumed. In this review, we have attempted to identify some of the common mechanisms underlying the regulation of glutamine dependent cellular functions. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

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