SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

LITERATURE CITED

  • Aikawa J, Esko JD. 1999. Molecular cloning and expression of a third member of the heparan sulfate/heparin GlcNAc N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase family. J Biol Chem 274: 26902695.
  • Aikawa J, Grobe K, Tsujimoto M, Esko JD. 2001. Multiple isozymes of heparan sulfate/heparin GlcNAc N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase: Structure and activity of the fourth member, NDST4. J Biol Chem 276: 58765882.
  • Alvarez K, Fadic R, Brandan E. 2002. Augmented synthesis and differential localization of heparan sulfate proteoglycans in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. J Cell Biochem 85: 703713.
  • Anderson JM, Fambrough DM. 1983. Aggregates of acetylcholine receptors are associated with plaques of a basal lamina heparan sulfate proteoglycan on the surface of skeletal muscle cells. J Cell Biol 97: 13961411.
  • Andrade W, Brandan E. 1991. Isolation and characterization of rat skeletal muscle proteoglycan decorin and comparison with the human fibroblast decorin. Comp Biochem Physiol 100: 565570.
  • Apel ED, Roberds SL, Campbell KP, Merlie JP. 1995. Rapsyn may function as a link between the acetylcholine receptor and the agrin-binding dystrophin-associated glycoprotein complex. Neuron 15: 115126.
  • Arai T, Parker A, Busby W Jr, Clemmons DR. 1994. Heparin, heparan sulfate, and dermatan sulfate regulate formation of the insulin-like growth factor-I and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein complexes. J Biol Chem 269: 2038820393.
  • Arikawa-Hirasawa E, Wilcox WR, Le AH, Silverman N, Govindraj P, Hassell JR, Yamada Y. 2001. Dyssegmental dysplasia, Silverman-Handmaker type, is caused by functional null mutations of the perlecan gene. Nat Genet 27: 431434.
  • Arikawa-Hirasawa E, Rossi SG, Rotundo RL, Yamada Y. 2002. Absence of acetylcholinesterase at the neuromuscular junctions of perlecan-null mice. Nat Neurosci 5: 119123.
  • Bai X, Esko JD. 1996. An animal cell mutant defective in heparan sulfate hexuronic acid 2-O-sulfation. J Biol Chem 271: 1771117717.
  • Barbosa I, Morin C, Garcia S, Duchesnay A, Oudghir M, Jenniskens G, Miao HQ, Guimond S, Carpentier G, Cebrian J, Caruelle JP, van Kuppevelt T, Turnbull J, Martelly I, Papy-Garcia D. 2005. A synthetic glycosaminoglycan mimetic (RGTA) modifies natural glycosaminoglycan species during myogenesis. J Cell Sci 118: 253264.
  • Bernfield M, Kokenyesi R, Kato M, Hinkes MT, Spring J, Gallo RL, Lose EJ. 1992. Biology of the syndecans: A family of transmembrane heparan sulfate proteoglycans. Annu Rev Cell Biol 8: 365393.
  • Bezprozvanny IB, Ondrias K, Kaftan E, Stoyanovsky DA, Ehrlich BE. 1993. Activation of the calcium release channel (ryanodin receptor) by heparin and other polyanions is calcium dependent. Mol Biol Cell 4: 347352.
  • Bink RJ, Habuchi H, Lele Z, Dolk E, Joore J, Rauch G-J, Geisler R, Wilson SW, den Hertog J, Kimata K, Zivkovic D. 2003. Heparan sulfate 6-O-Sulfotransferase is essential for muscle development in zebrafish. J Biol Chem 278: 3111831127.
  • Bischoff R. 1994. The satellite cell and muscle regeneration. In: EngelAG, Franzini-ArmstrongC, editors. Myogenesis. New York: McGraw-Hill. pp 97118.
  • Bourdon MA, Krusius T, Campbell S, Schwartz NB, Ruoslahti E. 1987. Identification and synthesis of a recognition signal for the attachment of glycosaminoglycans to proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 84: 31943198.
  • Brandan E, Maldonado M, Garrido J, Inestrosa NC. 1985. Anchorage of collagen-tailed acetylcholinesterase to the extracellular matrix is mediated by heparan sulfate proteoglycans. J Cell Biol 101: 985992.
  • Brandan E, Carey DJ, Larraín J, Melo F, Campos A. 1996. Synthesis and processing of glypican during differentiation of skeletal muscle cells. Eur J Cell Biol 71: 170176.
  • Bullock SL, Fletcher JM, Beddington RS, Wilson VA. 1998. Renal agenesis in mice homozygous for a gene trap mutation in the gene encoding heparan sulfate 2-sulfotransferase. Genes Dev 12: 18941906.
  • Burch GH, Bedolli MA, McDonough S, Rosenthal SM, Bristow J. 1995. Embryonic expression of tenascin-X suggests a role in limb, muscle, and heart development. Dev Dyn 203: 491504.
  • Bülow HE, Hobert O. 2004. Differential sulfations and epimerization define heparan sulfate specificity in nervous system development. Neuron 41: 723736.
  • Campanelli JT, Roberds SL, Campbell KP, Scheller RH. 1994. A role for dystrophin-associated glycoproteins and utrophin in agrin-induced AChR clustering. Cell 77: 663674.
  • Campanelli JT, Gayer GG, Scheller RH. 1996. Alternative RNA splicing that determines agrin activity regulates binding to heparin and alpha-dystroglycan. Development 122: 16631672.
  • Campos A, Nunez R, Koening CS, Carey DJ, Brandan E. 1993. A lipid-anchored heparan sulfate proteoglycan is present in the surface of differentiated skeletal muscle cells. Isolation and biochemical characterization. Eur J Biochem 216: 587595.
  • Cano-Gauci DF, Song HH, Yang H, McKerlie C, Choo B, Shi W, Pullano R, Piscione TD, Grisaru S, Soon S, Sedlackova L, Transwell AK, Mak TW, Yeger H, Lockwood GA, Rosenblum ND, Filmus J. 1999. Glypican-3-deficient mice exhibit developmental overgrowth and some of the abnormalities typical of Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome. J Cell Biol 146: 255264.
  • Carrino DA, Caplan AI. 1982. Isolation and preliminary characterization of proteoglycans synthesized by skeletal muscle. J Biol Chem 257: 1414514154.
  • Casar JC, Cabello-Verrugio C, Olguin H, Aldunate R, Inestrosa NC, Brandan E. 2004. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans are increased during skeletal muscle regeneration: Requirement of syndecan-3 for successful fiber formation. J Cell Sci 117: 7384.
  • Chiu AY. Ko J. 1994. A novel epitope of entactin is present at the mammalian neuromuscular junction. J Neurosci 14: 28092817.
  • Chiu AY, Sanes JR. 1984. Development of basal lamina in synaptic and extrasynaptic portions of embryonic rat muscle. Dev Biol 103: 456467.
  • Cifuentes-Diaz C, Goudou D, Padilla F, Facchinetti P, Nicolet M, Merge RM, Rieger F. 1996. M-cadherin distribution in the mouse adult neuromuscular system suggests a role in muscle innervation. Eur J Neurosci 8: 16661676.
  • Cifuentes-Diaz C, Velasco E, Meunier FA, Goudou D, Belkadi L, Faille L, Murawsky M, Angaut-Petit D, Molgo J, Schachner M, Saga Y, Aizawa S, Rieger F. 1998. The peripheral nerve and the neuromuscular junction are affected in the tenascin-C-deficient mouse. Cell Mol Biol 44: 357379.
  • Cifuentes-Diaz C, Alliel PM, Charbonnier F, de la Porte S, Molgo J, Goudou D, Rieger F, Perin JP. 2000. Regulated expression of the proteoglycan SPOCK in the neuromuscular system. Mech Dev 94: 277282.
  • Cohen MW, Hoffstrom BG, DeSimone DW. 2000. Active zones on motor nerve terminals contain α3β1 integrin. J Neurosci 20: 49124921.
  • Cornelison DDW, Filla MS, Stanley HM, Rapraeger AC, Olwin BB. 2001. Syndecan-3 and syndecan-4 specifically mark skeletal muscle satellite cells and are implicated in satellite cell maintenance and muscle regeneration. Dev Biol 239: 7994.
  • Cornelison DDW, Wilcox-Adelman SA, Goetinck PF, Rauvala H, Rapraeger AC, Olwin BB. 2004. Essential and separable roles for Syndecan-3 and Syndecan-4 in skeletal muscle development and regeneration. Genes Dev 18: 22312236.
  • Costell M, Mann K, Yamada Y, Timpl R. 1997. Characterization of recombinant perlecan domain I and its substitution by glycosaminoglycans and oligosaccherides. Eur J Biochem 243: 115121.
  • Costell M, Gustafsson E, Aszodi A, Morgelin M, Bloch W, Hunziker E, Addicks K, Timpl R, Fassler R. 1999. Perlecan maintains the integrity of cartilage and some basement membranes. J Cell Biol 147: 11091122.
  • Crawford BE, Olsen SK, Esko JD, Pinhal MAS. 2001. Cloning, Golgi lacalization, and enzyme activity of the full-length heparin/heparan sulfate-glucuronic acid C5-epimerase. J Biol Chem 276: 2153821543.
  • Crisona NJ, Allen KD, Strohman RC. 1998. Muscle satellite cells from dystrophic (mdx) mice have elevated levels of heparan sulfate proteoglycan receptors for fibroblast growth factor. J Musc Res Cell Motil 19: 4351.
  • David G, Mei Bai X, Van Der Schueren B, Cassiman J-J, Van Den Berghe H. 1992. Developmental changes in heparan sulfate expression: In situ detection with mAbs. J Cell Biol 119: 961975.
  • Davis AK, Carlson SS. 1994. Proteoglycans are present in the transverse tubule system of skeletal muscle. Matrix Biol 14: 607621.
  • DeChiara TM, Bowen DC, Valenzuela DM, Simmons MV, Poueymirou WT, Thomas S, Kinetz E, Compton DL, Rojas E, Park JS, Smith C, DiStefano PS, Glass DJ, Burden SJ, Yancopoulos GD. 1996. The receptor tyrosine kinase MuSK is required for neuromuscular junction formation in vivo. Cell 85: 501512.
  • Denzer AJ, Hauser DM, Gesemann M, Ruegg MA. 1997. Synaptic differentiation: The role of agrin in the formation and maintenance of the neuromuscular junction. Cell Tiss Res 290: 357365.
  • Dolan M, Horchar T, Rigatti B, Hassell JR. 1997. Identification of sites in domain I of perlecan that regulate heparan sulfate synthesis. J Biol Chem 272: 43164322.
  • Eggen KH, Malmstrøm A, Kolset SO. 1994. Decorin and a large dermatan sulfate proteoglycan in bovine striated muscle. Biochim Biophys Acta 1204: 287297.
  • Engel AG. 1994. The neuromuscular junction. In: EngelAG, BankerBQ, editors. Myology. New York: McGraw-Hill. pp 261302.
  • Eriksson I, Sandbäck D, Ek B, Lindahl U, Kjellén L. 1994. cDNA cloning and sequencing of mouse mastocytoma glucosaminyl N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase, an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of heparin. J Biol Chem 269: 1043810443.
  • Fallon JR, Nitkin RM, Reist NE, Wallace BG, McMahan UJ. 1985. Acetylcholine receptor-aggregating factor is similar to molecules concentrated at neuromuscular junctions. Nature 315: 571574.
  • Fan G, Xiao L, Cheng L, Wang X, Sun B, Hu G. 2000. Targeted disruption of NDST-1 gene leads to pulmonary hypoplasia and neonatal respiratory distress in mice. FEBS Lett 467: 711.
  • Ferns MJ, Hoch W, Campanelli JT, Rupp F, Hall ZW, Scheller RH. 1992. RNA splicing regulates agrin-mediated acetylcholine receptor clustering activity on cultured myotubes. Neuron 8: 10791086.
  • Festoff BW, Rao JS, Hantaï D. 1991. Plasminogen activators and inhibitors in the neuromuscular system: III. The serpin protease nexin I is synthesized by muscle and localized at neuromuscular synapses. J Cell Physiol 147: 7686.
  • Feyzi E, Lustig F, Fager G, Spillmann D, Lindahl U, Salmivirta M. 1997. Characterization of heparin and heparan sulfate domains binding to the long splice variant of platelet-derived growth factor A chain. J Biol Chem 272: 55185524.
  • Filmus J, Selleck SB. 2001. Glypicans: Proteoglycans with a surprise. J Clin Invest 108: 497501.
  • Forsberg E, Kjellén L. 2001. Heparan sulfate: Lessons from knockout mice. J Clin Invest 108: 175180.
  • Forsberg E, Pejler G, Ringvall M, Lunderius C, Tomasini-Johansson B, Kusche-Gullberg M, Eriksson I, Ledin J, Hellman L, Kjellén L. 1999. Abnormal mast cells in mice defective in a heparin-synthesizing enzyme. Nature 400: 773776.
  • Fuentealba L, Carey DJ, Brandan E. 1999. Antisense inhibition of syndecan-3 expression during skeletal muscle differentiation accelerates myogenesis through a basic fibroblast growth factor-dependent mechanism. J Biol Chem 274: 3787637884.
  • Gautam M, Noakes PG, Moscoso L, Rupp F, Scheller RH, Merlie JP, Sanes JR. 1996. Defective neuromuscular synaptogenesis in agrin-deficient mutant mice. Cell 85: 525535.
  • Gautam M, DeChiara TM, Glass DJ, Yancopoulos GD, Sanes JR. 1999. Distinct phenotypes of mutant mice lacking agrin, MuSK, or rapsyn. Dev Brain Res 114: 171178.
  • Gee SH, Montanaro F, Lindenbaum MH, Carbonetto S. 1994. Dystroglycan-α, a dystrophin-associated glycoprotein, is a functional agrin receptor. Cell 77: 675686.
  • Gesemann M, Cavalli V, Denzer AJ, Brancaccio A, Schumacher B, Ruegg MA. 1996. Alternative splicing of agrin alters its binding to heparin, dystroglycan, and the putative agrin receptor. Neuron 16: 755767.
  • Gordon H, Lupa M, Bowen D, Hall Z. 1993. A muscle cell variant defective in glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis forms nerve-induced but not spontaneous clusters of the acetylcholine receptor and the 43 kDa protein. J Neurosci 13: 586595.
  • Gosh TK, Eis PS, Mullaney JM, Ebert CL, Gill DL. 1988. Competitive, reversible, and potent antagonism of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-activated calcium release by heparin. J Biol Chem 263: 1107511079.
  • Grady RM, Zhou H, Cunningham JM, Henry MD, Campbell KP, Sanes JR. 2000. Maturation and maintenance of the neuromuscular synapse: Genetic evidence for roles of the dystrophin–glycoprotein complex. Neuron 25: 279293.
  • Grow WA, Gordon H. 2000. Sialic acid inhibits agrin signaling in C2 myorubes. Cell Tissue Res 299: 273279.
  • Guimond S, Maccarana M, Olwin BB, Lindahl U, Rapraeger AC. 1993. Activation and inhibitory heparin sequences for FGF-2 (basic FGF). Distinct requirements for FGF-1, FGF-2, and FGF-4. J Biol Chem 268: 2390623914.
  • Gunay NS, Linhardt RJ. 1999. Heparanoids: structure, biological activities, and therapeutic applications. Planta Medica 65: 301306.
  • Habuchi H, Suzuki S, Saito T, Tamura T, Harada T, Yoshida K, Kimata K. 1992. Structure of a heparan sulfate oligosaccharide that binds to basic fibroblast growth factor. Biochem J 285: 805813.
  • Habuchi H, Habuchi O, Kimata K. 1995. Purification and characterization of heparan sulfate 6-sulfotransferase from the culture medium of Chinese hamster ovary cells. J Biol Chem 270: 41724179.
  • Habuchi H, Kobayashi M, Kimata K. 1998. Molecular characterization and expression of heparan sulfate 6-sulfotransferase. Complete cDNA cloning in human and partial cloning in Chinese hamster ovary cells. J Biol Chem 273: 92089213.
  • Habuchi H, Tanaka M, Habuchi O, Yoshida K, Suzuki H, Ban K, Kimata K. 2000. The occurrence of three isoforms of heparan sulfate 6-O-sulfotransferase having different specificities for hexuronic acid adjacent to the targeted N-sulfoglucosamine. J Biol Chem 275: 28592868.
  • Habuchi H, Miyake G, Nogami K, Kuroiwa A, Matsutsuda Y, Kusche-Gullberg M, Habuchi O, Tanaka M, Kimata K. 2003. Biosynthesis of heparan sulfate with diverse structures and functions: Two alternatively spliced forms of human heparan sulphate 6-O-sulphotransferase-2 having different expression patterns and properties. Biochem J 371: 131142.
  • Hagios C, Brown-Luedi M, Chiquet-Ehrismann R. 1999. Tenascin-Y, a component of distinctive connective tissues, supports muscle cell growth. Exp Cell Res 253: 607617.
  • Hagiwara H, Fallon JR. 2001. Shaping membrane architecture: Agrins in and out of the synapse. J Cell Biol 153: F3942.
  • Halfter W, Dong S, Schurer B, Cole GJ. 1998. Collagen XVIII is a basement membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan. J Biol Chem 273: 2540425412.
  • Hall ZW, Sanes JR. 1993. Synaptic structure and development: The neuromuscular junction. Cell 72/Neuron 10: 99121.
  • Hashimoto Y, Orellana A, Gil G, Hirschberg CB. 1992. Molecular cloning and expression of rat liver N-heparan sulfate sulfotransferase. J Biol Chem 267: 1574415750.
  • Hassell JR, Robey PG, Barrach H-J, Wilczek J, Rennard S, Martin GR. 1980. Isolation of a heparan sulfate-containing proteoglycan from basement membrane. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 77: 44944498.
  • Herrmann R, Straub V, Meyer K, Kahn , T, Wagner M, Voit T. 1996. Congenital muscular dystrophy with laminin α2 chain deficiency: Identification of a new intermediate phenotype and correlation of clinical findings to muscle immunohistochemistry. Eur J Pediatr 155: 968976.
  • Hirano Y, Kidokoro Y. 1989. Heparin and heparan sulfate partially inhibit induction of acetylcholine receptor accumulation by nerve in Xenopus culture. J Neurosci 9: 15551561.
  • Hoch W, Ferns M, Campanelli JT, Hall ZW, Scheller RH. 1993. Developmental regulation of highly active alternatively spliced forms of agrin. Neuron 11: 479490.
  • Hoch W, Campanelli JT, Scheller RH. 1994. Agrin-induced clustering of acetylcholine receptors: A cytoskeletal link. J Cell Biol 126: 14.
  • Hsueh Y-P, Yang F-C, Kharazia V, Naisbitt S, Cohen AR, Weinberg RJ, Sheng M. 1998. Direct interaction of CASK/LIN-2 and syndecan heparan sulfate proteoglycan and their overlapping distribution in neuronal synapses. J Cell Biol 142: 139151.
  • Humphries DE, Sullivan BM, Aleixo MD, Stow JL. 1997. Localization of human heparan glucosaminyl N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase to the trans-Golgi network. Biochem J 325: 351357.
  • Humphries DE, Lanciotti J, Karlinsky JB. 1998. cDNA cloning, genomic organization, and chromosamal localization of human heparan glucosaminyl N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase-2. Biochem J 332: 303307.
  • Humphries DE, Wong GW, Friend DS, Gurish MF, Qiu W-T, Huang C, Sharpe AH, Stevens RL. 1999. Heparin is essential for the storage of specific granule proteases in mast cells. Nature 400: 769772.
  • Hunter DD, Shah V, Merlie JP, Sanes JR. 1989. A laminin-like adhesive protein concentrated in the synaptic cleft of the neuromuscular junction. Nature 338: 229234.
  • Iglesias M, Ribera J, Esquerda JE. 1992. Treatment with digestive agents reveals several glycoconjugates specifically associated with rat neuromuscular junction. Histochem 97: 125131.
  • Iozzo RV. 1994. Perlecan: A gem of a proteoglycan. Matrix Biol 14: 203208.
  • Iozzo RV. 2001. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans: Intricate molecules with intriguing functions. J Clin Invest 108: 165167.
  • Jacobson C, Cote PD, Rossi SG, Rotundo RL, Carbonetto S. 2001. The dystroglycan complex is necessary for stabilization of acetylcholine receptor clusters at neuromuscular junctions and formation of the synaptic basement membrane. J Cell Biol 152: 435450.
  • Jenniskens GJ, Oosterhof A, Brandwijk R, Veerkamp JH, van Kuppevelt TH. 2000. Heparan sulfate heterogeneity in skeletal muscle basal lamina: Demonstration by phage display-derived antibodies. J Neurosci 20: 40994111.
  • Jenniskens GJ, Hafmans T, Veerkamp JH, van Kuppevelt TH. 2002. Spatiotemporal distribution of heparan sulfate epitopes during myogenesis and synaptogenesis: A study in developing mouse intercostal muscle. Dev Dyn 225: 7079 (DOI: 10.1002/dvdy.10138).
  • Jenniskens GJ, Koopman WJH, Willems PHGM, Pecker I, Veerkamp JH, van Kuppevelt TH. 2003a. Phenotypic knock out of heparan sulfates in myotubes impairs excitation-induced calcium spiking. FASEB J 17: 10 .1096/fj.02-0572fje (DOI: 10.1096/fj.02-0572fje).
  • Jenniskens GJ, Ringvall M, Koopman WJH, Willems PHGM, Forsberg E, Kjellén L, Veerkamp JH, van Kuppevelt TH. 2003b. Disturbed calcium kinetics in N-Deacetylase/N-Sulfotransferase-1 and -2 Defective Myotubes. J Cell Sci 116: 21872193 (DOI: 10.1242/jcs.00447).
  • Kantor DB, Chivatakarn O, Peer KL, Oster SF, Inatani M, Hansen MJ, Flanagan JG, Yamaguchi Y, Sretavan DW, Giger RJ, Kolodkin AL. 2004. Semaphorin 5A is a bifunctional axon guidance cue regulated by heparan and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans. Neuron 44: 961975.
  • Kirkpatrick CA, Dimitroff BD, Rawson JM, Selleck SB. 2004. Spatial regulation of Wingless morphogen distribution and signaling by Dally-like protein. Dev Cell 7: 513523.
  • Kjellén L, Lindahl U. 1991. Proteoglycans: Structures and interactions. Annu Rev Biochem 60: 443475.
  • Knaus H-G, Scheffauer F, Romanin C, Schindler H-G, Glossmann H. 1990. Heparin binds with high affinity to voltage-dependent L-type Ca2+ channels. Evidence for an agonistic action. J Biol Chem 265: 1115611166.
  • Kobayashi S, Somlyo AV, Somlyo AP. 1988. Heparin inhibits 1,4,5-trisphosphate-dependent, but not the independent calcium release induced by guanine nucleotide in vascular smooth muscle. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 153: 625631.
  • Kobayashi M, Habuchi H, Habuchi O, Saito M, Kimata K. 1996. Purification and characterization of heparan sulfate 2-sulfotransferase from cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells. J Biol Chem 271: 76457653.
  • Kobayashi M, Habuchi H, Yoneda M, Habuchi O, Kimata K. 1997. Molecular cloning and expression of Chinese hamster ovary cell heparan-sulfate 2-sulfotransferase. J Biol Chem 272: 1398013985.
  • Koulen P, Ehrlich BE. 2000. Reversible block of the calcium release channel/ryanodine receptor by protamine, a heparin antidote. Mol Biol Cell 11: 22132219.
  • Kreuger J, Perez L, Giraldez AJ, Cohen SM. 2004. Opposing activities of Dally-like glypican at high and low levels of Wingless morphogen activity. Dev Cell 7: 503512.
  • Kusche-Gullberg M, Eriksson I, Sandbäck Pikas D, Kjellén L. 1998. Identification and expression in mouse of two heparan sulfate glucosaminyl N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase genes. J Biol Chem 273: 1190211907.
  • Kvist A-P, Latvanlehto A, Sund M, Eklund L, Väisänen T, Hägg P, Sormunen R, Komulainen J, Fässler R, Pihlajaniemi T. 2001. Lack of cytosolic and transmembrane domains of type XIII collagen results in progressive myopathy. Am J Pathol 159: 15811592.
  • Lamandé SR, Bateman JF, Hutchison W, McKinlay Gardner RJ, Bower SP, Byrne E, Dahl H-HM. 1998. Reduced collagen VI causes Bethlehem myopathy: A heterozygous COL6A1 nonsense mutation results in mRNA decay and functional haploinsufficiency. Hum Mol Genet 7: 981989.
  • Lamb GD, Posterino GS, Stephenson DG. 1994. Effects of heparin on excitation–contraction coupling in skeletal muscle of toad and rat. J Physiol 474: 319329.
  • Langford JK, Stanley MJ, Cao D, Sanderson RD. 1998. Multiple heparan sulfate chains are required for optimal syndecan-1 function. J Biol Chem 273: 2996529971.
  • Larraín J, Alvarez J, Hassell JR, Brandan E. 1997a. Expression of perlecan, a proteoglycan that binds myogenic inhibitory basic fibroblast growth factor, is down regulated during skeletal muscle differentiation. Exp Cell Res 234: 405412.
  • Larraín J, Cizmeci-Smith G, Troncoso V, Stahl RC, Cary DJ, Brandan E. 1997b. Syndecan-1 expression is down-regulated during myoblast terminal differentiation. J Biol Chem 272: 1841818424.
  • Larraín J, Carey DJ, Brandan E. 1998. Syndecan-1 expression inhibits myoblast differentiation through a basic fibroblast growth factor-dependent mechanism. J Biol Chem 273: 3228832296.
  • Lerner L, Torchia DA. 1986. A multinuclear NMR study of the interactions of cations with proteoglycans, heparin, and Ficoll. J Biol Chem 261: 1270612714.
  • Letourneau PC, Condic ML, Snow DM. 1994. Interactions of developing neurons with the extracellular matrix. J Neurosci 14: 915928.
  • Li M, Dickson DW, Spiro AJ. 1997. Abnormal expression of laminin β1 chain in skeletal muscle of adult-onset limb-girdle muscular dystrophy. Arch Neurol 54: 14571461.
  • Li JP, Gong F, El Darwish K, Jalkanen M, Lindahl U. 2001. Characterization of the D-glucuronyl C5-epimerase involved in the biosynthesis of heparin and heparan sulfate. J Biol Chem 276: 2006920077.
  • Li JP, Gong F, Hagner-McWhirter A, Forsberg E, Albrink M, Kisilevsky R, Zhang X, Lindahl U. 2003. Targeted disruption of a murine glucuronyl C5-epimerase gene results in heparan sulfate lacking L-iduronic acid and in neonatal lethality. J Biol Chem 278: 2836328366.
  • Lin X. 2004. Functions of heparan sulfate proteoglycans in cell signaling during development. Development 131: 60096021.
  • Lin X, Perrimon N. 2003. Developmental roles of heparan sulfate proteoglycans in Drosophila. Glycoconj J 19: 363368.
  • Lindahl U, Kusche-Gullberg M, Kjellén L. 1998. Regulated diversity of heparan sulfate. J Biol Chem 273: 2497924982.
  • Liu J, Shworak NW, Fritze LMS, Edelberg JM, Rosenberg RD. 1996. Purification of heparan sulfate D-glucosaminyl 3-O-sulfotransferase. J Biol Chem 271: 2707227082.
  • Lupa MT, Caldwell JH. 1991. Effect of agrin on the distribution of acetylcholine receptors and sodium channels on adult skeletal muscle fibers in culture. J Cell Biol 115: 765778.
  • Lyon M, Deakin JA, Mizuno K, Nakamura T, Gallagher JT. 1994. Interaction of hepatocyte growth factor with heparan sulfate. Elucidation of the major heparan sulfate structural determinants. J Biol Chem 269: 1121611223.
  • Mars T, King MP, Miranda AF, Grubic Z. 2000. Heparin blocks functional innervation of cultured human muscle by rat motor nerve. Pflugers Arch 439: R3637.
  • Martin PT. 2002. Glycobiology of the synapse. Glycobiology 12: 1R7R.
  • Martin PT, Freeze HH. 2003. Glycobiology of neuromuscular disorders. Glycobiology 13: 67R75R.
  • Martin PT, Sanes JR. 1995. Role for a synapse-specific carbohydrate in agrin-induced clustering of acetylcholine receptors. Neuron 14: 743754.
  • Martin-Rendon E, Blake DJ. 2003. Protein glycosylation in disease: New insights into the congenital muscular dystrophies. TRENDS Pharmacol Sci 24: 178183.
  • Martinez M, Garcia MC, Farias JM, Cruzblanca H, Sanchez JA. 1996. Modulation of Ca2+ channels, charge movement and Ca2+ transients by heparin in frog skeletal muscle fibers. J Musc Res Cell Motil 17: 575594.
  • Matsumoto K, Saga Y, Ikemura T, Sakakura T, Chiquet-Ehrismann R. 1994. The distribution of tenascin-X is distinct and often reciprocal to that of tenascin-C. J Cell Biol 125: 483493.
  • McCaffrey TA, Falcone DJ, Du B. 1992. Transforming growth factor-beta 1 is a heparin-binding protein: Identification of putative heparin-binding regions and isolation of heparins with varying affinity for TGF-beta 1. J Cell Physiol 152: 430440.
  • McFarland DC, Liu X, Velleman SG, Zeng C, Coy CS, Pesall JE. 2003. Variation in fibroblast growth factor response and heparan sulfate proteoglycan production in satellite cell populations. Comp Biochem Physiol 134: 431351.
  • McMahan UJ. 1990. The agrin hypothesis. Cold Spring Harbor Symp Quant Biol 55: 407718.
  • McMahan UJ, Sanes JR, Marshall LM. 1978. Cholinesterase is associated with the basal lamina at the neuromuscular junction. Nature 271: 172174.
  • Meddahi A, Brée F, Papy-Garcia D, Gauton J, Barritault D, Caruelle J-P. 2002. Pharmacological studies of RGTA11, a heparan sulfate mimetic polymer, efficient on muscle regeneration. J Biomed Mater Res 62: 525531.
  • Merlini L, Villanova M, Sabatelli P, Malandrini A, Maraldi NM. 1999. Decreased expression of laminin β1 in chromosome 21-linked Bethlehem myopathy. Neuromusc Disord 9: 326329.
  • Miner JH, Sanes JR. 1994. Collagen IV α3, α4, and α5 chains in rodent basal laminae: Sequence, distribution, association with laminins, and developmental switches. J Cell Biol 127: 879891.
  • Moll J, Barzaghi P, Lin S, Bezakova G, Lochmüller H, Engvall E, Müller U, Ruegg MA. 2001. An agrin minigene rescues dystrophic symptoms in a mouse model for congenital muscular dystrophy. Nature 413: 302307.
  • Muntoni F, Brockington M, Torelli S, Brown SC. 2004. Defective glycosylation in congenital muscular dystrophies. Curr Opin Neurol 17: 205209.
  • Nicole S, Davoine C-S, Topaloglu H, Cattolico L, Barral D, Beighton P, Hamida CB, Hammouda H, Cruaud C, White PS, Samson D, Urtizberea JA, Lehmann-Horn F, Weissenbach J, Hentati F, Fontaine B. 2000. Perlecan, the major proteoglycan of basement membranes, is altered in patients with Schwartz-Jampel syndrome (chondrodystrophic myotonia). Nat Genet 26: 480483.
  • Nitkin RM, Smith MA, Magill C, Fallon JR, Yao YM, Wallace BG, McMahan UJ. 1987. Identification of agrin, a synaptic organizing protein from Torpedo electric organ. J Cell Biol 105: 24712478.
  • Noonan DM, Malemud CJ, Przybylski RJ. 1986. Biosynthesis of heparan sulfate proteoglycans of developing chick breast skeletal muscle in vitro. Exp Cell Res 166: 327339.
  • Nurcombe V, Ford MD, Wildschut JA, Bartlett PF. 1993. Developmental regulation of neural response to FGF-1 and FGF-2 by heparan sulfate proteoglycan. Science 260: 103106.
  • Olguin H, Brandan E. 2001. Expression and localization of proteoglycans during limb myogenic activation. Dev Dyn 221: 106115.
  • Olwin BB, Rapraeger A. 1992. Repression of myogenic differentiation by aFGF, bFGF, and K-FGF is dependent on cellular heparan sulfate. J Cell Biol 118: 631639.
  • Orellana A, Hirschberg CB, Wei Z, Swiedler SJ, Ishihara M. 1994. Molecular cloning and expression of a glycosaminoglycan N-acetylglucosaminyl N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase from a heparin-producing cell line. J Biol Chem 269: 22702276.
  • Pape PC, Konishi M, Baylor SM, Somlyo AP. 1988. Excitation–contraction coupling in skeletal muscle fibers injected with the InsP3 blocker, heparin. FEBS Lett 235: 5762.
  • Papy-Garcia D, Barbosa I, Duchesnay A, Saadi S, Caruelle JP, Barritault D, Martelly I. 2002. Glycosaminoglycan mimetics (RGTA) modulate adult skeletal muscle satellite cell proliferation in vitro. Biomed Mater Res 62: 4655.
  • Patton BL, Miner JH, Chiu AY, Sanes JR. 1997. Distribution and function of laminins in the neuromuscular system of developing, adult, and mutant mice. J Cell Biol 139: 15071521.
  • Pilia G, Hughes-Benzie RM, MacKenzie A, Baybayan P, Chen EY, Huber R, Neri G, Cao A, Forabosco A, Schlessinger D. 1996. Mutations in GPC3, a glypican gene, cause the Simson-Golabi-Behmel overgrowth syndrome. Nat Genet 12: 241247.
  • Qu X, Wei H, Zhai Y, Que H, Chen Q, Tang F, Wu Y, Xing G, Zhu Y, Liu S, Fan M, He F. 2002. Identification, characterization, and functional study of the two novel human members of the semaphorin gene family. J Biol Chem 277: 3557435585.
  • Quirico-Santos T, Ribeiro MM, Savino W. 1995. Increased deposition of extracellular matrix components in the thymus gland of MDX mouse: Correlation with the muscular lesion. J Neuroimmunol 59: 918.
  • Rapraeger AC, Krufka A, Olwin BB. 1991. Requirement of heparan sulfate for bFGF-mediated fibroblast growth and myoblast differentiation. Science 252: 17051708.
  • Rehn M, Pihlajaniemi T. 1995. Identification of three N-terminal ends of type XVIII collagen chains and tissue-specific differences in the expression of the corresponding transcripts. J Biol Chem 270: 47054711.
  • Reist NE, Werle MJ, McMahan UJ. 1992. Agrin released by motor neurons induces the aggregation of acetylcholine recptors at neuromuscular junctions. Neuron 8: 865868.
  • Rieger F, Grumet M, Edelman GM. 1985. N-CAM at the vertebrate neuromuscular junction. J Cell Biol 101: 285293.
  • Rimer M, Cohen I, Lømo T, Burden SJ, McMahan UJ. 1998. Neuregulins and erbB receptors at neuromuscular junctions and at agrin-induced postsynaptilike apparatus in skeletal muscle. Mol Cel Neurosci 12: 115.
  • Ringelmann B, Röder C, Hallmann R, Maley M, Davies M, Grounds M, Sorokin L. 1999. Expression of laminin α1, α2, α4, and α5 chains, fibronectin, and tenascin-C in skeletal muscle of dystrophic 129ReJ dy/dy mice. Exp Cell Res 246: 165182.
  • Ringvall M, Ledin J, Holmborn K, van Kuppevelt T, Ellin F, Erikson I, Olofsson A-M, Kjellén L, Forsberg E. 2000. Defective heparan sulfate biosynthesis and neonatal lethality in mice lacking N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase-1. J Biol Chem 275: 2592625930.
  • Ritov VB, Men'shikova EV, Kozlov YP. 1985. Heparin induces Ca2+ release from the terminal cisterns of skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum. FEBS Let 188: 7780.
  • Rogalski TM, Gilchrist EJ, Mullen GP, Moerman DG. 1995. Mutations in the unc-52 gene responsible for body wall muscle defects in adult Caenorhabditis elegans are located in alternatively spliced exons. Genetics 139: 159169.
  • Rojas C, Jamovich E. 1990. Calcium release modulated by inositol trisphosphate in ruptured fibers from frog skeletal muscle. Pflüg Arch 416: 296304.
  • Ronca F, Andersen JS, Paech V, Margolis RU. 2001. Characterization of slit protein interactions with glypican-1. J Biol Chem 276: 2914129147.
  • Ruegg MA, Tsim KWK, Horton SE, Kroger S, Escher G, Gensch EM, McMahan UJ. 1992. The agrin gene codes for a family of basal lamina proteins that differ in function and distribution. Neuron 8: 691699.
  • Salpeter MM, Loring RH. 1985. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in vertebrate muscle: Properties, distribution, and neural control. Prog Neurobiol 25: 297325.
  • Salpeter MM, Buonanno A, Eftimie R, Brenner HR, Pinset C, Mulle C, Benoit P, Changeux JP, Montarras D, Brehm P, Shepherd D, Froenher SC, Gordon H, Ralston E, Hall ZW, Lupa M, Rotundo R, Bertetta CF-V, Gomez AM, Barton F, Randall WR. 1992. Regulation of of molecules at the neuromuscular junction. In: KellyAM, BlauHM, editors. Neuromuscular development and disease. New York: Raven Press. pp 251283.
  • Sanes JR. 1986. The extracellular matrix. In: EngelAG, BankerBQ, editors. Myology. New York: McGraw-Hill. pp 155175.
  • Sanes JR, Cheney JM. 1982. Lectin binding reveals a synapse-specific carbohydrate in skeletal muscle. Nature 300: 646647.
  • Sanes JR, Chiu AY. 1983. The basal lamina of the neuromuscular junction. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol 48: 667678.
  • Sanes JR, Engvall E, Butkowski R, Hunter DD. 1990. Molecular heterogeneity of basal laminae: Isoforms of laminin and collagen IV at the neuromuscular junction and elsewhere. J Cell Biol 111: 16851699.
  • Sasaki T, Fukai N, Mann K, Gohring W, Olsen BR, Timpl R. 1998. Structure, function and tissue forms of the C-terminal globular domain of collagen XVIII containing the angiogenesis inhibitor endostatin. EMBO J 17: 42494256.
  • Schworak NW, Liu J, Fritze LMS, Schwartz JJ, Zhang L, Logeart D, Rosenberg RD. 1997. Molecular cloning and expression of mouse and human cDNAs encoding heparan sulfate D-glucosaminyl 3-O-sulfotransferase. J Biol Chem 272: 2800828019.
  • Schworak NW, Liu J, Petros LM, Zhang L, Kobayashi M, Copeland NG, Jenkins NA, Rosenberg RD. 1999. Multiple isoforms of heparan sulfate D-glucosaminyl 3-O-sulfotransferase. Isolation, characterization, and expression of human cDNAs and identification of distinct genomic loci. J Biol Chem 274: 51705184.
  • Scott LJC, Bacou F, Sanes JR. 1988. A synapse-specific carbohydrate at the neuromuscular junction: Association with both acetylcholinesterase and a glycolipid. J Neurosci 8: 932944.
  • Scott LJ, Balsamo J, Sanes JR, Lilien J. 1990. Synaptic localization and neural regulation of an N-acetylgalactosaminyl transferase in skeletal muscle. J Neurosci 10: 346350.
  • Sewry CA, Taylor J, Anderson LVB, Ozawa E, Pogue R, Piccolo F, Bushby K, Dubowitz V, Muntoni F. 1996. Abnormalities in α-, β-, and γ-sarcoglycan in patients with Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy. Neuromusc Disord 6: 467474.
  • Steigemann P, Molitor A, Fellert S, Jackle H, Vorbrüggen G. 2004. Heparan sulfate proteoglycan syndecan promotes axonal and myotube guidance by slit/robo signaling. Curr Biol 14: 225230.
  • Sund M, Väisänen T, Kaukinen S, Ilves M, Tu H, Autio-Harmainen H, Rauvala H, Pihlajaniemi T. 2001. Distinct expression of type XIII collagen in neuronal structures and other tissues during mouse development. Matrix Biol 20: 215231.
  • Szabat E, Rauvala H. 1996. Role of HB-GAM (heparin-binding growth associated molecule) in proliferation arrest in cells of the developing rat limb and its expression in differentiating neuromuscular system. Dev Biol 178: 7789.
  • Timpl R, Brown JC. 1995. Supramolecular assembly of basement membranes. BioEssays 18: 123132.
  • Tome FM, Evangelista T, Leclerc A, Sunada Y, Manole E, Estournet B, Barois A, Campbell KP, Fardeau M. 1994. Congenital muscular dystrophy with merosin deficiency. C R Acad Sci III 317: 351357.
  • Torres JC, Inestrosa NC. 1983. Heparin solubilizes asymmetric acetylcholinesterase from rat neuromuscular junction. FEBS Lett 154: 265268.
  • Tsen G, Halfter W, Kröger S, Cole GJ. 1995. Agrin is a heparan sulfate proteoglycan. J Biol Chem 270: 33923399.
  • Turnbull JE, Fernig DG, Ke Y, Wilkinson MC, Gallagher JT. 1992. Identification of the basic fibroblast growth factor binding sequence in fibroblast heparan sulfate. J Biol Chem 267: 1033710341.
  • Valenzuela DM, Stitt TN, DiStefano PS, Rojas E, Mattsson K, Compton DL, Nunez L, Park JS, Stark JL, Gies DR, Thomas S, Le Beau MM, Fernald AA, Copeland NG, Jenkins NA, Burden SJ, Glass DJ, Yancopoulos GD. 1995. Receptor tyrosine kinase specific for the skeletal muscle lineage: Expression in embryonic muscle, at the neuromuscular junction, and after injury. Neuron 15: 573584.
  • van den Born J, van den Heuvel LPWJ, Bakker MAH, Veerkamp JH, Assmann KJM, Berden JHM. 1992. Production and characterization of a monoclonal antibody against human glomerular basement membrane. Kidney Int 41: 115123.
  • van Kuppevelt TH, Dennissen MABA, Van Venrooij WJ, Hoet RMA, Veerkamp JH. 1998. Generation and application of type-specific anti-heparan sulfate antibodies using phage display technology. J Biol Chem 273: 1296012966.
  • Varki A, Cummings R, Esko J, Freeze H, Hart H, Marth J. 1999. Essentials of glycobiology. New York: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. p 653.
  • Velleman SG, Liu X, Eggen KH, Nestor KE. 1999. Developmental regulation of proteoglycan synthesis and decorin expression during turkey embryonic skeletal muscle formation. Poultry Sci 78: 16191626.
  • Von der Mark H, Durr J, Sonnenberg A, von der Mark K, Deutzmann R, Goodman SL. 1991. Skeletal myoblasts utilize a novel α6β1 for binding to the E8 and T8 fragments of laminin. J Biol Chem 266: 2359323601.
  • Wallace BG. 1990. Inhibition of agrin-induced acetylcholine-receptor aggregation by heparin, heparan sulfate, and other polyanions. J Neurosci 10: 35763582.
  • Wallace BG. 1995. Regulation of the interaction of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors with the cytoskeleton by agrin-activated protein tyrosine kinase. J Cell Biol 128: 11211129.
  • Wallace BG, Nitkin RM, Reist NE, Fallon JR, Moayeri NN, McMahan UJ. 1985. Aggregates of acetylcholinesterase induced by acetylcholine receptor-aggregating factor. Nature 315: 574577.
  • Willmann R, Fuhrer C. 2002. Neuromuscular synaptogenesis: Clustering of acetylcholine receptors revisited. Cell Mol Life Sci 59: 12961316.
  • Woods A, Oh E-S, Couchman JR. 1998. Syndecan proteoglycans and cell adhesion. Matrix Biol 17: 477483.
  • Xia G, Chen J, Tiwari V, Ju W, Li JP, Malmstrom A, Shukla D, Liu J. 2002. Heparan sulfate 3-O-sulfotransferase isoform 5 generates both an antithrombin-binding site and an entry receptor for herpes simplex virus, type 1. J Biol Chem 277: 3791237919.
  • Yamaguchi Y. 2002. Glycobiology of the synapse: The role of glycans in the formation, maturation, and modulation of synapses. Biochem Biophys Acta 1573: 369376.
  • Yayon A, Klagsbrun M, Esko JD, Leder P, Ornitz DM. 1991. Cell surface, heparin-like molecules are required for binding of basic fibroblast growth factor to its high affinity receptor. Cell 64: 841848.
  • Zhang L, David G, Esko JD. 1995. Repetitive Ser-Gly sequences enhance heparan sulfate assembly in proteoglycans. J Biol Chem 270: 2712727135.
  • Zhu X, Lai C, Thomas S, Burden SJ. 1995. Neuregulin receptors, erbB3, and erbB4, are localized at neuromuscular synapses. EMBO J 14: 58425848.