Studies on survivin over the past 2–3 years have shown that survivin possesses multiple subcellular localizations and is a multi-functional molecule involved in many aspects of cellular processes and/or behaviors. The subcellular localization and function of the survivin splice variants, however, have not yet been well elucidated. We have, therefore, provided additional observations on several survivin splice variants for further exploration. This review article will update the role of survivin, and its splice variants in the mitosis/cell cycle, apoptosis, tumorigenesis, chemoprevention, drug/radiation resistance, and cancer therapeutics. J. Cell. Physiol. 208: 476–486, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.