In oxygenated cells, hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) α subunits are rapidly degraded by a mechanism that involves ubiquitination by the von Hippel–Lindau tumor suppressor E3 ligase complex using 2-oxoglutarate as a substrate. We examined the effect of 2-oxoglutarate on the production of erythropoietin and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The expression of erythropoietin and VEGF protein were dose-dependently downregulated in Hep3B cells by the addition of 2-oxoglutarate. The promoter activity of VEGF-luciferase was dose-dependently downregulated by the addition of 2-oxoglutarate. Gel mobility shift assays revealed that the addition of 2-oxoglutarate dose-dependently inhibited HIF-1 binding activity, but did not affect GATA binding activity. Western blot analysis revealed that 2-oxoglutarate dose-dependently inhibited the HIF-1α protein level in Hep3B cells in hypoxic conditions. However, MG132 (the proteasome inhibitor) rescued the inhibition of HIF-1α protein expression by 2-oxoglutarate. Furthermore, under hypoxic conditions, 2-oxoglutarate dose-dependently inhibited tube formation in in vitro angiogenesis assays. These results indicate that 2-oxoglutarate treatment may be useful for the inhibition of angiogenesis. J. Cell. Physiol. 209: 333–340, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.