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Selective amino acid restriction targets mitochondria to induce apoptosis of androgen-independent prostate cancer cells

Authors

  • Ya-Min Fu,

    1. Cancer Prevention and Research Center, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington
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  • Hui Zhang,

    1. Cancer Prevention and Research Center, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington
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  • Mingjie Ding,

    1. Cancer Prevention and Research Center, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington
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  • Yi-Qi Li,

    1. Cancer Prevention and Research Center, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington
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  • Xing Fu,

    1. Cancer Prevention and Research Center, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington
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  • Zu-Xi Yu,

    1. Pathology Section, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Bethesda, Maryland
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  • Gary G. Meadows

    Corresponding author
    1. Cancer Prevention and Research Center, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington
    • Cancer Prevention and Research Center, Box 646713, College of Pharmacy, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-6713.
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Abstract

Relative specific amino acid dependency is one of the metabolic abnormalities of cancer cells, and restriction of specific amino acids induces apoptosis of prostate cancer cells. This study shows that restriction of tyrosine and phenylalanine (Tyr/Phe), glutamine (Gln), or methionine (Met), modulates Raf and Akt survival pathways and affects the function of mitochondria in DU145 and PC3, in vitro. These three restrictions inhibit energy production (ATP synthesis) and induce generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Restriction of Tyr/Phe or Met in DU145 and Met in PC3 reduces mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and induces caspase-dependent and -independent apoptosis. In DU145, Tyr/Phe or Met restriction reduces activity of Akt, mitochondrial distribution of phosphorylated Raf and apoptosis inducing factor (AIF), and increases mitochondrial distribution of Bak. Mitochondrial Bcl-XL is increased in Tyr/Phe-restricted but decreased in Met-restricted cells. Under Tyr/Phe or Met restriction, reduced mitochondrial Raf does not inactivate the pro-apoptotic function of Bak. Tyr/Phe restriction also inhibits Bcl-2 and Met restriction inhibits Bcl-XL in mitochondria. These comprehensive actions damage the integrity of the mitochondria and induce apoptosis of DU145. In PC3, apoptosis induced by Met restriction was not associated with alterations in intracellular distribution of Raf, Bcl-2 family proteins, or AIF. All of the amino acid restrictions inhibited Akt activity in this cell line. We conclude that specific amino acid restriction differentially interferes with homeostasis/balance between the Raf and Akt survival pathways and with the interaction of Raf and Bcl-2 family proteins in mitochondria to induce apoptosis of DU145 and PC3 cells. J. Cell. Physiol. 209: 522–534, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

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