Chromatin modifying enzymes have emerged as key regulators of all DNA based processes, which control cell growth, development, and differentiation. Recently, it has become clear that different chromatin remodeling and histone-modifying activities are involved in transcriptional activation and repression. Among the enzymes involved in regulating chromatin structure is the family of protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) that specializes in methylating both histones as well as key cellular proteins. There are eleven different PRMT genes (PRMT1-11) whose biological function remains under explored. PRMTs regulate various cellular processes such as DNA repair and transcription, RNA processing, signal transduction, and nucleo-cytoplasmic localization. Like histone lysine methylation, methylation of histone arginine residues can either induce or inhibit transcription depending on the residue being modified and the type of methylation being introduced. In this review, we will focus on the latest findings and biological roles of ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes and PRMT enzymes, and how their aberrant expression is linked to cancer. J. Cell. Physiol. 213: 306–315, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.