Mutations in the dystrophin gene cause an X-linked genetic disorder: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Stem cell therapy is an attractive method to treat DMD because a small number of cells are required to obtain a therapeutic effect. Here, we discussed about multiple types of myogenic stem cells and their possible use to treat DMD. The identification of a stem cell population providing efficient muscle regeneration is critical for the progression of cell therapy for DMD. We speculated that the most promising possibility for the treatment of DMD is a combination of different approaches, such as gene and stem cell therapy. J. Cell. Physiol. 221: 526–534, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.