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Sensing invasion: Cell surface receptors driving spreading of glioblastoma



Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common malignant brain tumour in adults. One main source of its high malignancy is the invasion of isolated tumour cells into the surrounding parenchyma, which makes surgical resection an insufficient therapy in nearly all cases. The invasion is triggered by several cell surface receptors including receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), TGF-β receptor, integrins, immunoglobulins, tumour necrosis factor (TNF) family, cytokine receptors, and protein tyrosine phosphatase receptors. The cross-talk between cell-surface receptors and the redundancy of downstream effectors make analysis of invasive signals even more complex. Therapies involving inhibition of single receptors do not give promising outcomes and a thorough knowledge of invasive signals of common and exclusive signalling components is required for design of best combinatory treatment schemes to fight the disease. J. Cell. Physiol. 222:1–10, 2010. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.