The phospholipid kinase phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase (PIP5K) catalyzes the phosphorylation of the membrane phospholipid phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate to generate the pleiotropic phospholipid phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2]. To date, three mammalian PIP5K isozymes, α, β, and γ, and several splicing variants of the γ isozyme have been identified. These PIP5K isozymes and PIP5Kγ variants play critical roles in various cellular functions through their product PI(4,5)P2. The small GTPase Arf6 is one of the key activators of PIP5K. Increasing evidence suggests that PIP5K functions as a downstream effector of Arf6 to regulate a wide variety of cellular functions, such as exocytosis, endocytosis, endosomal recycling, membrane ruffle formation, immune response, and bacterial invasion. In this review, we place our focus on the recent advances in Arf6/PIP5K signaling and its linkage to cellular functions. J. Cell. Physiol. 226: 888–895, 2011. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.