Inhibitor of differentiation-1 (Id-1) is a member of helix–loop–helix (HLH) family of proteins that regulate gene transcription through their inhibitory binding to basic-HLH transcription factors. Similarly to other members of this family, Id-1 is involved in the repression of cell differentiation and activation of cell growth. The dual function of Id-1, inhibition of differentiation, and stimulation of cell proliferation, might be interdependent, as cell differentiation is generally coupled with the exit from the cell cycle. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) has been reported to play multiple roles in different biological processes during development of the central nervous system (CNS). In addition, FGF-2 has been described to induce “neuronal-like” differentiation and trigger apoptosis in neuroblastoma SK-N-MC cells. Although regulation of Id-1 protein by several mitogenic factors is well-established, little is known about the role of FGF-2 in the regulation of Id-1. Using human neuroblastoma cell line, SK-N-MC, we found that treatment of these cells with FGF-2 resulted in early induction of both Id-1 mRNA and protein. The induction occurs within 1 h from FGF-2 treatment and is mediated by ERK1/2 pathway, which in turn stimulates expression of the early growth response-1 (Egr-1) transcription factor. We also demonstrate direct interaction of Egr-1 with Id-1 promoter in vitro and in cell culture. Finally, inhibition of Id-1 expression results in G2/M accumulation of FGF-2-treated cells and delayed cell death. J. Cell. Physiol. 226: 1763–1770, 2011. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.