Growth of the mandibular condylar cartilage (MCC) is reviewed as a function of genetic and epigenetic factors. The growth centers around the differential spatial concentration of the chondrocytes, influence of growth factors like TGF-β and heterogeneity in the number of IGF receptors, control the action of IGF. Besides these factors, growth of the mandibular condyle is influenced by differential response of chondrocytes as a function of their source/ageing, which in turn is regulated by TGF-β, BMPs and IGFs. While IGF-1 promotes proteoglycan synthesis and survival of the chondrocytes to maintain cartilage homeostasis, TGF-β synergistically catalysed the effect of IGF-1, while BMPs catalysed proteolysis as and when physiologically needed. To understand these processes, role of IGF-1 and its six receptors is at the center to a number of physiological processes being regulated by its mode of application for the growth and differentiation. Probing deeper, biological functions of IGFs seemed to depend on their level of free status rather than bound status to respective IGF-binding proteins (IGF-BPs), considered prerequisite to modulate their biological functions. Genetic regulation of their secretion has thrown light on their insulin-like structural homology, level and response in osteo-arthritis (OA), rheumatic arthritis (RA) and diabetes type-II. Biochemistry and spatial distribution of IGF receptors in different domains exerts control on IGF-1 activities. In ultimate analysis, IGF-axis conserved during the evolution to regulate cell growth and proliferation affect nearly every organ in the body as judged from the techniques determining skeletal maturity and decision making dependent on it for orthodontic, orthognathic/orthopedic and dental implant applications. J. Cell. Physiol. 227: 1796–1804, 2012. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.