Amphoterin-induced gene and ORF (AMIGO) is a brain-enriched transmembrane immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily protein with six extracellular leucine-rich repeats (LRR) and a single immunoglobulin-like (Ig) domain. We report here that AMIGO is a glycosylated protein widely expressed in the central nervous system (CNS), and can be found in neurons, astrocytes as well as oligodendrocytes. In morphologically mature primary neurons, endogenous AMIGO, and transfected full length AMIGO (AMIGO-FL) are largely dendritic, while AMIGO with its LRR domain deleted (AMIGO-Ig) is predominantly axonal. In line with AMIGO's dendritic localization, siRNA-mediated silencing of AMIGO resulted in reduced dendritic growth of cortical neurons in culture. SH-SY5Y cells stably over-expressing AMIGO are more resistant to apoptosis induced by staurosporine and H2O2 compared to vector controls. AMIGO therefore likely plays important roles in dendritic outgrowth during development, and could modulate the survival of developing and adult neurons. J. Cell. Physiol. 227: 2217–2229, 2012. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.