RKIP: Much more than Raf Kinase inhibitory protein

Authors

  • Fahd Al-Mulla,

    Corresponding author
    1. Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Kuwait University Health Sciences Centre, Safat, Kuwait
    • Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Pathology Unit, Department of Pathology, Health Sciences Center, Kuwait University, P.O. Box 24923, Safat 13110, Kuwait.
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  • Milad S. Bitar,

    1. Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology, Kuwait University Health Sciences Centre, Safat, Kuwait
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  • Zainab Taqi,

    1. Department of Molecular Biology, College of Biological Science, University of Kuwait, Safat, Kuwait
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  • Kam C. Yeung

    1. Department of Biochemistry and Cancer Biology, College of Medicine, Health Science Campus, University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio, U.S.A.
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  • All authors have contributed in writing of this manuscript. Authors have no conflict of interest.

Abstract

From its discovery as a phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein in bovine brain to its designation as a physiological inhibitor of Raf kinase protein, RKIP has emerged as a critical molecule for maintaining subdued, well-orchestrated cellular responses to stimuli. The disruption of RKIP in a wide range of pathologies, including cancer, Alzheimer's disease, and pancreatitis, makes it an exciting target for individualized therapy and disease-specific interventions. This review attempts to highlight recent advances in the RKIP field underscoring its potential role as a master modulator of many pivotal intracellular signaling cascades that control cellular growth, motility, apoptosis, genomic integrity, and therapeutic resistance. Specific biological and functional niches are highlighted to focus future research towards an enhanced understanding of the multiple roles of RKIP in health and disease. J. Cell. Physiol. 228: 1688–1702, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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