Author contributions: Ahmed M. Nader conducted search, analyzed data, and wrote manuscript. David R. Foster Analyzed data and wrote manuscript.
Suitability of digoxin as a P-glycoprotein probe: Implications of other transporters on sensitivity and specificity
Article first published online: 26 OCT 2013
© 2013, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology
The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Volume 54, Issue 1, pages 3–13, January 2014
How to Cite
Nader, A. M. and Foster, D. R. (2014), Suitability of digoxin as a P-glycoprotein probe: Implications of other transporters on sensitivity and specificity. Journal of Clinical Pharma, 54: 3–13. doi: 10.1002/jcph.200
- Issue published online: 2 JAN 2014
- Article first published online: 26 OCT 2013
- Accepted manuscript online: 8 OCT 2013 05:17AM EST
- Manuscript Accepted: 30 SEP 2013
- Manuscript Received: 28 JUL 2013
- drug–drug interaction;
The study of transporter-mediated drug–drug interactions (DDI) requires use of appropriate probes to reflect transporter function. Digoxin is often used as a probe in DDI studies involving P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and is recommended by FDA for this purpose, despite several lingering questions regarding suitability of digoxin as P-gp probe. This review aims to critically evaluate use of digoxin as a probe for P-gp-mediated clinical DDI studies, with focus on sensitivity and specificity of digoxin for P-gp. Although previous reviews have evaluated digoxin transport by P-gp, the purpose of the current review is to critically evaluate such literature in light of newly evolving literature suggesting digoxin transport by non-P-gp transporters.