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Keywords:

  • transplantation;
  • pharmacodynamics;
  • calcineurin inhibition;
  • population pharmacokinetics;
  • voclosporin

Abstract

The aims of this population-pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (POP-PKPD) analysis of voclosporin in renal allograft patients were to build a POP-PKPD model for voclosporin and calcineurin activity (CNa) and identify clinically relevant covariates that could assist dosing of the drug. POP-PKPD modeling was performed using a stochastic approximation of the standard expectation maximization (SAEM) algorithm for nonlinear mixed-effects as implemented in Monolix™ 3.2. Voclosporin whole blood concentrations were obtained from de novo renal allograft patients and assayed using a validated LC/MS/MS assay. CNa was measured using a 32P-radiolabeled assay. A two-compartment model with simultaneous sigmoid inhibitory Emax model was used to describe the PKPD relationship between voclosporin concentration and CNa. The POP-PKPD model was then utilized to simulate an optimal initial dosing strategy. Eighty-seven patients were included in the POP-PKPD study. Population mean estimates (relative standard error, rse) for oral clearance (CL/F) and first compartment volume of distribution (V1), were 717 mL min−1 (35%) and 2010 mL (17%), respectively. Maximum CNa Inhibition (Imax), effective concentration (C50), and baseline immunosuppression (S0) were 0.87 pmol/min/mg (8.0%), 123 ng/mL (10%), and 1.15 pmol/min/mg (4.0%), respectively. Covariate analyses demonstrated that age and body surface area significantly influenced CL/F: inline image, while serum triglycerides significantly altered S0: inline image.