• 1
    Mueller I, Galinski MR, Baird JK, et al. Key gaps in the knowledge of Plasmodium vivax, a neglected human malaria parasite. Lancet Infect Dis. 2009; 9(9):555566.
  • 2
    Price RN, Tjitra E, Guerra CA, Yeung S, White NJ, Anstey NM. Vivax malaria: neglected and not benign. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2007; 77(6 Suppl):7987.
  • 3
    Battle KE, Gething PW, Elyazar IR, et al. The global public health significance of Plasmodium vivax. Adv Parasitol. 2012; 80:1111.
  • 4
    Gething PW, Elyazar IR, Moyes CL, et al. A long neglected world malaria map: Plasmodium vivax endemicity in 2010. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012; 6(9):e1814.
  • 5
    White NJ. Determinants of relapse periodicity in Plasmodium vivax malaria. Malar J. 2011; 10:297.
  • 6
    White NJ, Imwong M. Relapse. Adv Parasitol. 2012; 80:113150.
  • 7
    World Health Organization. WHO Model Prescribing Information: Drugs Used in Parasitic Diseases—Second Edition. World Health Organization. Available at: Accessed 2nd February, 2013.
  • 8
    John GK, Douglas NM, von Seidlein L, et al. Primaquine radical cure of Plasmodium vivax: a critical review of the literature. Malar J. 2012; 11:280.
  • 9
    Takeuchi R, Lawpoolsri S, Imwong M, et al. Directly-observed therapy (DOT) for the radical 14-day primaquine treatment of Plasmodium vivax malaria on the Thai-Myanmar border. Malar J. 2012; 9:308.
  • 10
    Dow GS, Gettayacamin M, Hansukjariya P, et al. Radical curative efficacy of tafenoquine combination regimens in Plasmodium cynomolgi-infected Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Malar J. 2011; 10:212.
  • 11
    Pradines B, Mamfoumbi MM, Tall A, et al. In vitro activity of tafenoquine against the asexual blood stages of Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Gabon, Senegal, and Djibouti. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2006; 50(9):32253226.
  • 12
    Ramharter M, Noedl H, Thimasarn K, Wiedermann G, Wernsdorfer G, Wernsdorfer WH. In vitro activity of tafenoquine alone and in combination with artemisinin against Plasmodium falciparum. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2002; 67(1):3943.
  • 13
    Coleman RE, Clavin AM, Milhous WK. Gametocytocidal and sporontocidal activity of antimalarials against Plasmodium berghei ANKA in ICR Mice and Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1992; 46(2):169182.
  • 14
    Charles BG, Miller AK, Nasveld PE, Reid MG, Harris IE, Edstein MD. Population pharmacokinetics of tafenoquine during malaria prophylaxis in healthy subjects. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007; 51(8):27092715.
  • 15
    Edstein MD, Kocisko DA, Brewer TG, Walsh DS, Eamsila C, Charles BG. Population pharmacokinetics of the new antimalarial agent tafenoquine in Thai soldiers. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2001; 52(6):663670.
  • 16
    Walsh DS, Looareesuwan S, Wilairatana P, et al. Randomized dose-ranging study of the safety and efficacy of WR 238605 (Tafenoquine) in the prevention of relapse of Plasmodium vivax malaria in Thailand. J Infect Dis. 1999; 180(4):12821287.
  • 17
    Walsh DS, Wilairatana P, Tang DB, et al. Randomized trial of 3-dose regimens of tafenoquine (WR238605) versus low-dose primaquine for preventing Plasmodium vivax malaria relapse. Clin Infect Dis. 2004; 39(8):10951103.
  • 18
    Green J, Harrell E, Narayan S, et al. A clinical summary of investigations to determine the haemolytic potential of tafenoquine in G6PD-deficient subjects. Presented at: 62nd Annual Meeting of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 2013, Washington, DC.
  • 19
    Llanos-Cuentas A, Lacerda MV, Rueangweerayut R, et al. Tafenoquine plus chloroquine for the treatment and relapse prevention of Plasmodium vivax malaria (DETECTIVE): a multicentre, double-blind, randomised, phase 2b dose-selection study. Lancet. 2013; 383(9922):10491058.
  • 20
    White NJ. Cardiotoxicity of antimalarial drugs. Lancet Infect Dis. 2007; 7(8):549558.
  • 21
    Touze JE, Heno P, Fourcade L, et al. The effects of antimalarial drugs on ventricular repolarization. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2002; 67(1):5460.
  • 22
    Roden DM, Woosley RL, Primm RK. Incidence and clinical features of the quinidine-associated long QT syndrome: implications for patient care. Am Heart J. 1986; 111(6):10881093.
  • 23
    Vereckei A, Fazakas A, Balo T, Fekete B, Molnar MJ, Karadi I. Chloroquine cardiotoxicity mimicking connective tissue disease heart involvement. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2013; 35(2):304306.
  • 24
    Teixeira RA, Borba EF, Bonfa E, Martinelli Filho M. Arrhythmias in systemic lupus erythematosus. Rev Bras Reumatol. 2010; 50(1):8189.
  • 25
    GlaxoSmithKline. Clinical Investigator's Brochure for SB252263, version 8, November 2010. Document on file: GM2007/00152/04.
  • 26
    Miller A, Harrell E, Ye L, et al. Pharmacokinetic interactions and safety evaluations of coadministered tafenoquine and chloroquine in healthy subjects. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2013; 76(6):858867.
  • 27
    International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use. The Clinical Evaluation of QT/QTc Interval Prolongation and Proarrhythmic Potential for Nonantiarrhythmic Drugs. E14, Step 5. ICH Steering Committee. Available at: Accessed 24th February, 2013.
  • 28
    Brueckner RP, Lasseter KC, Lin ET, Schuster BG. First-time-in-humans safety and pharmacokinetics of WR 238605, a new antimalarial. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1998; 58(5):645649.
  • 29
    del Corral A, Dutreix C, Huntsman-Labed A, et al. Midostaurin does not prolong cardiac repolarization defined in a thorough electrocardiogram trial in healthy volunteers. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2012; 69(5):12551263.
  • 30
    Florian JA, Tornoe CW, Brundage R, Parekh A, Garnett CE. Population pharmacokinetic and concentration–QTc models for moxifloxacin: pooled analysis of 20 thorough QT studies. J Clin Pharmacol. 2011; 51(8):11521162.
  • 31
    Tornoe CW, Garnett CE, Wang Y, Florian J, Li M, Gobburu JV. Creation of a knowledge management system for QT analyses. J Clin Pharmacol. 2011; 51(7):10351042.
  • 32
    Taubel J, Ferber G, Lorch U, Batchvarov V, Savelieva I, Camm AJ. Thorough QT study of the effect of oral moxifloxacin on QTc interval in the fed and fasted state in healthy Japanese and Caucasian subjects. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2014; 77(1):170179.
  • 33
    Lettieri J, Vargas R, Agarwal V, Liu P. Effect of food on the pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose of moxifloxacin 400mg in healthy male volunteers. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2001; 40(Suppl 1):1925.
  • 34
    Leary KJ, Riel MA, Roy MJ, et al. A randomized, double-blind, safety and tolerability study to assess the ophthalmic and renal effects of tafenoquine 200mg weekly versus placebo for 6 months in healthy volunteers. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2009; 81(2):356362.
  • 35
    Lell B, Faucher JF, Missinou MA, et al. Malaria chemoprophylaxis with tafenoquine: a randomised study. Lancet. 2000; 355(9220):20412045.
  • 36
    Nasveld PE, Edstein MD, Reid M, et al. Randomized, double-blind study of the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of tafenoquine versus mefloquine for malaria prophylaxis in nonimmune subjects. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010; 54(2):792798.
  • 37
    Walsh DS, Eamsila C, Sasiprapha T, et al. Efficacy of monthly tafenoquine for prophylaxis of Plasmodium vivax and multidrug-resistant P. falciparum malaria. J Infect Dis. 2004; 190(8):14561463.
  • 38
    Shanks GD, Oloo AJ, Aleman GM, et al. A new primaquine analogue, tafenoquine (WR 238605), for prophylaxis against Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Clin Infect Dis. 2001; 33(12):19681974.