Magnesium ammonium phosphate formation, recovery and its application as valuable resources: a review


Correspondence to: ChangSix Ra, Department of Animal Life System Kangwon National University Chunchon 200–701, South Korea. E-mail:


To address the issues of wastewater treatment and depleting phosphorus (P) resources, the present review focuses on the very wide interest in P recovery from wastewater, with scientific research underway in countries across the globe. The study describes the growing concern for diminishing P resources and then the chemical principle of magnesium ammonium phosphate (MAP) precipitation, factors influencing MAP crystallization, and various developments achieved through bench, pilot and full scale MAP reactors. A brief description is given of MAP purification and dissolution to economically exploit MAP as a phosphate and magnesium source. Experience in re-use of recovered MAP as a sustainable agriculture fertilizer is discussed including pot and field trials. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry