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Abstract

Procedures for the dehydration of fructose in non-aqueous solvents using Amberlyst 15 strong acid resins and amine salts as catalysts have been developed to give hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), hydroxymethylfurfural ethers and laevulinate esters with high carbon recoveries. These procedures allow of easy ‘scale-up’ and recovery of catalyst and solvent.