Observation of impurities in ice
Article first published online: 17 OCT 2001
Copyright © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Microscopy Research and Technique
Special Issue: Functional Cytology of Nitric Acid in Striated Muscle—Part I
Volume 55, Issue 3, pages 198–207, 1 November 2001
How to Cite
Cullen, D. and Baker, I. (2001), Observation of impurities in ice. Microsc. Res. Tech., 55: 198–207. doi: 10.1002/jemt.10000
- Issue published online: 17 OCT 2001
- Article first published online: 17 OCT 2001
- Manuscript Accepted: 15 JUL 2001
- Manuscript Received: 3 MAY 2001
- National Science Foundation. Grant Number: OPP-9980379
- Army Research Office (ARO). Grant Numbers: DAAD 19-00-1-0444, DAAH 04-96-1-0292, DAAD 19-99-10068
This paper presents a new method for determining the microstructural location of impurities in polycrystalline ice, which involves allowing the ice to sublimate under vacuum and then identifying the concentrated impurities using energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis in a low-vacuum scanning electron microscope. The method allows the presence of impurities in both the grain boundaries and the lattice of natural polycrystalline ice to be observed. Using this technique on natural ice, filaments consisting chiefly of NaCl were observed in some grain boundaries, small amounts of sulfur and chlorine were found in the grain interiors of the ice, and large concentrations of sulfur were observed in inclusions. Microsc. Res. Tech. 55:198–207, 2001. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.