Reconstruction of bone defects is one of the major therapeutic goals in various clinical fields. Bone replacement materials must satisfy a number of criteria. Biological criteria are biocompatibility, controlled biodegradability, and osteoconductive or even osteogenic potential. The material should have a three-dimensional structure with an interconnected pore system so as to permit cell growth and transport of substances. The surface must permit cell adhesion and proliferation. Composite biomaterials have enormous potential for natural bone tissue reparation, filling and augmentation. Calcium hydroxyapatite/polymer composite biomaterials belong to this group of composites and, because of their osteoconductive and biocompatible properties, can be successfully implemented within bone tissue reparations. In this study, possible differences between BCP/DLPLG, pure BCP, and Bio-Oss® materials were examined in vitro. During overnight incubations, fibroblast and fibroblast-like cells (L929, MRC5) were able to adhere, spread, and remain viable on BCP, BCP/PLGA, and Bio-Oss® discs, as was evidenced by using light- and LVSEM-microscopy. Inhibiting influence over the cell growth is more pronounced in the cases of BCP usage on both cell lines—41.29% for L929 and 43.08% for MRC-5 cells. MRC-5 cells are, within the given experimental conditions, less sensitive on inhibiting effects for the materials BCP/PLGA and Bio-Oss® (10.13% and 10.76%, respectively) than for the L929 cell lines (23.02% and 15.44%, respectively). Microsc. Res. Tech., 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.