This article reviews the biochemical, physiological, and experimental data cumulated during the last decade on the Meissner and Pacinian corpuscles. It includes information about (i) the localization of molecules recently detected in sensory corpuscles; (ii) the unsolved problem of the accessory fibers in sensory corpuscles and the occurrence of myelin within them; (iii) the development of sensory corpuscles, especially their neuronal and growth factor dependency; (iv) the composition and functional significance of the extracellular matrix as an essential part of the mechanisms involved in the genesis of the stimuli generated in sensory corpuscles; (v) the molecular basis of mechanotransduction; (vi) a miscellaneous section containing sparse new data on the protein composition of sensory corpuscles, as well as in the proteins involved in live–death cell decisions; (vii) the changes in sensory corpuscles as a consequence of aging, the central, or peripheral nervous system injury; and finally, (viii) the special interest of Meissner corpuscles and Pacinian corpuscles for pathologists for the diagnosis of some peripheral neuropathies and neurodegenerative diseases. Microsc. Res. Tech., 2009. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.