The knowledge of the process of egg formation is indispensable for understanding the mechanisms involved in the reproduction of different species. In this context, the objective of this work was to describe the ultrastructure of the oocytes of Urostreptus atrobrunneus (Spirostreptida), a potential plague of urban centers in different locations of São Paulo State. The lack of knowledge about the morphology, physiology, and the reproductive behavior of the species have hindered an effective control of it. The oocytes of U. atrobrunneus presented three development stages: young oocyte or type I; intermediary oocyte or type II; and mature oocyte or type III. During the oocyte development, the cytoplasm become filled with several globules of protein, drops of lipids, and sphaerocrystals, and it was not observed in many organelles in the oocytes with exception of mitochondria, abundant, principally in young oocytes. The vitelline membrane is also deposited in a discontinuous form and the chorion does not present differentiation of layers. The follicular epithelium alters its shape according to the development phase of the oocyte. Part of the vitellus is from exogenous origin and part is endogenous. Before this, only two studies about the ultrastructural analysis of the female germ cells of diplopods were published. Microsc. Res. Tech. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.