• development;
  • tongue;
  • lingual papillae;
  • domestic goose;
  • SEM


The general development of the tongue in birds was described by Lillie (1908) in chicken. Bryk et al. (1992) also studied the tongue development in chicken and they observed development of the conical papillae of the body. Our study aims to describe the timing of the development of the tongue morphological features in the domestic goose by using SEM methods. The tongue of the domestic goose is characterized by the widest variety of shape of the particular part of the tongue and mechanical papillae. Results indicated that the formation of the apex, body, lingual prominence, and the root of the tongue take place between the 10th and 19th day of incubation. The tongue elongates rapidly between the 16th and 18th day of incubation. Simultaneously, the median groove appears on the body and the lingual prominence and elongates towards the rostral part of the tongue. The conical papillae of the tongue develop gradually. On the body, the conical papillae develop from the caudal part of the body to the rostral part and on the lingual prominence from the median part of the prominence to the lateral part. Hair-like papillae at the caudal surface of the body of the tongue remain primordial to the end of the incubation. Our studies on the morphogenesis of the tongue in the domestic goose revealed changes in shape of the particular part of the tongue and rapid pace of the formation of mechanical papillae. The tongue is completely develop before hatching and ready to collect food. © Microsc. Res. Tech., 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.