This study describes the very first assessment of the expression and localization of translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) in adult rat urinary organs. TCTP expression levels in kidneys, urinary bladder, and urethra were evaluated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS–PAGE) and Western blotting, and its cellular localization was examined immunohistochemically in paraffin sections of various urinary organs. TCTP was found in all urinary organs. Its expression was high in the urethra and low in the bladder. TCTP was localized in glomerular podocytes, epithelium of proximal and distal renal tubules, in the loop of Henle, and in the transitional epithelium of the bladder and urethra, mostly in basal cell layers). The subcellular localization of TCTP in these urinary organs was cytoplasmic. These findings suggest that TCTP may be involved in urine formation and excretion. Microsc. Res. Tech. 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.