• endodontics;
  • debris;
  • root canal;
  • scanning electron microscopy;
  • smear layer


The aim of the current study was to evaluate the presence of debris and smear layer after endodontic irrigation with different formulations of 2% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) and its effects on the push-out bond strength of an epoxy-based sealer on the radicular dentin. One hundred extracted human canines were prepared to F5 instrument and irrigated with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite and 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. Fifty teeth were divided into five groups (n = 10), according to the final irrigation protocol with different 2% CHX formulations: G1 (control, no final rinse irrigation), G2 (CHX solution), G3 (CHX gel), G4 (Concepsis), and G5 (CHX Plus). In sequence, the specimens were submitted to scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis, in the cervical-medium and medium-apical segments, to evaluate the presence of debris and smear layer. The other 50 teeth were treated equally to a SEM study, but with the root canals filled with an epoxy-based endodontic sealer and submitted to a push-out bond strength test, in the cervical, middle, and apical thirds. G2, G3, G4, and G5 provided higher precipitation of the debris and smear layer than G1 (P < 0.05), but these groups were similar to each other (P > 0.05), in both segments. The values obtained in the push out test did not differ between groups, independent of the radicular third (P > 0.05). The CHXs formulations caused precipitation of the debris and smear layer on the radicular dentin, but these residues did not interfere in the push-out bond strength of the epoxy-based sealer. Microsc. Res. Tech. 77:17–22, 2014. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.