We report the results of phylogenetic analyses of 1447 bases of mitochondrial DNA sequence for 21 populations representing seven species of the Anolis grahami series (A. conspersus, A. garmani, A. grahami, A. lineatopus, A. opalinus, A. reconditus, and A. valencienni), six of which occur on Jamaica. These data include 705 characters that are phylogenetically informative according to parsimony. A parsimony analysis of these data combined with previously published allozymic data yields a single most parsimonious tree with strong support for monophyly of the A. grahami series, the sister-group relationship between Anolis lineatopus and A. reconditus and a clade composed of Anolis garmani, A. grahami, and A. opalinus. Based on DNA data alone, A. conspersus is nested within A. grahami. Haplotypes sampled from geographic populations of A. grahami, A. lineatopus, and A. opalinus are highly divergent (≈12–15% sequence difference on average for each species) and show similar phylogeographic patterns, suggesting that each of these currently recognized species may be a complex of species. Anolis valencienni also shows high sequence divergence among haplotypes from different geographic populations (≈8% sequence difference) and may contain cryptic species. Divergence among haplotypes within A. garmani is substantially lower (≈3% sequence difference), and phylogeographic patterns are significantly different from those observed in A. grahami, A. lineatopus and A. opalinus. J. Exp. Zool. (Mol. Dev. Evol.) 294:1–16, 2002. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.