A tetraploidization event took place in the cyprinid lineage leading to goldfishes about 15 million years ago. A PCR survey for Hox genes in the goldfish Carassius auratus auratus (Actinopterygii: Cyprinidae) was performed to assess the consequences of this genome duplication. Not surprisingly, the genomic organization of the Hox gene clusters of goldfish is similar to that of the closely related zebrafish (Danio rerio). However, the goldfish exhibits a much larger number of recent pseudogenes, which are characterized by indels. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that dosage effects cause selection pressure to rapidly silence crucial developmental regulators after a tetraploidization event. J. Exp. Zool. (Mol. Dev. Evol.) 308B:250–258, 2007. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.