Maternal factors have essential roles in the specification and development of germ cells in metazoans. In Drosophila, a number of genes such as oskar, vasa, nanos, and tudor are required for specific steps in pole cell formation and further germline development. Drosophila cup, another maternal factor, is confirmed as a main factor in normal oogenesis, maintenance, and survival of female germ-line stem cells by interaction with Nanos. Through searching for the homolog of Drosophila cup in the medaka, the homolog of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E)-transporter, named Ol4E-T, was identified. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and in situ hybridization revealed that Ol4E-T is maternally deposited in the embryo and Ol4E-T expression is maintained throughout embryogenesis. Ol4E-T is predominantly expressed in the adult gonads. In the testes, Ol4E-T is expressed in the same regions where medaka vasa, named olvas is expressed. In the ovary, expression of Ol4E-T conforms to that of nanos3 and olvas. Ol4E-T harbors a well-conserved eIF4E-binding motif, YTKEELL, by which Ol4E-T interacts with eIF4E in medaka. Additionally, Ol4E-T can interact with medaka Nanos3 and Olvas, as shown by yeast two hybridization. The spatial expression and interactions between Ol4E-T with germ cell markers Olvas and Nanos3 suggest a role for Ol4E-T in germ-line development in medaka. J. Exp. Zool. (Mol. Dev. Evol.) 320B:10–21, 2013. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.