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Trematode Himasthla elongata mariner element (Hemar): Structure and applications

Authors

  • Nick K. Galaktionov,

    1. Department of Cytology and Histology, Faculty of Biology, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia
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  • Anna I. Solovyeva,

    1. Institute of Cytology of Russian Academy of Sciences, Group of Non-Coding DNA, St. Petersburg, Russia
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  • Anton V. Fedorov,

    1. Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics, V. A. Almazov Federal Center of Heart, Blood and Endocrinology, St. Petersburg, Russia
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  • Olga I. Podgornaya

    Corresponding author
    1. Institute of Cytology of Russian Academy of Sciences, Group of Non-Coding DNA, St. Petersburg, Russia
    2. Department of Cytology and Histology, Faculty of Biology, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia
    • Correspondence to: Olga I. Podgornaya, Institute of Cytology of Russian Academy of Sciences, Group of Non-coding DNA, St. Petersburg, Russia.

      E-mail: opodg@yahoo.com

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Abstract

We cloned and analyzed Hemar1—the full-length mariner of Himasthla elongata. Hemar1 amount and distribution in the genome is typical for the transposable elements. Hemar1 closest relatives found in databases are the mariner-like element (MLE) of Girardia tigrina with 88% similarity in the most conserved transposase domain and Cemar1 of Caenorhabditis elegans with the most similar inverted terminal repeats. Hydra's (Cnidaria) MLE are the next in similarity to Hemar1. We checked whether sequences similar to Hemar1 exist in intermediate and definitive hosts of the parasitic trematode and did not find obvious similarity. This fact, together with the data of Hemar1 evolutionary position, argues against recent MLE-mediated horizontal transfer in this parasite–host model. Our results demonstrate that H. elongata generates genomic variability in asexual parthenogenetic generations within the snail. Transposon insertional display based on full-length sequence showed that Hemar1 could be located in the regions involved in generating clonal diversity in rediae and cercariae, that is, trematode parthenitae. J. Exp. Zool. (Mol. Dev. Evol.) 322B: 142–155, 2014. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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